Keywords: Transformational leadership; idealized influence; intellectual stimulation; inspirational motivation; personal considerations. A critique of Transformational Leadership theory Introduction This paper assesses the main characteristics of the criticisms which are made against transformational leadership (TL) theory. It is different from the theory of Burns which indicate a two-way process that leaders and followers perform beyond expectations. (Dumdum, Lowe, & Avolio, 2002; Judge & Piccolo, 2004; Lowe, Kroeck, & Sivasubramaniam, 1996) while conflicting evidence has been reported concerning the factor structure of the model, and very strong relationships have been reported among the leadership factors (Avolio et al., 1999). TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY AND EVIDENCE Transformational Leadership Theory And Evidence Transformational Leadership Theory And Evidence Topic A Introduction Leadership plays an important role in the organization, because it encourages the organization's goal, vision, … Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? tional leadership is practiced and preferred to a greater extent than transactional leadership. Reference this. 1995), transformational leaders motivate their followers by inspiring them, offering challenges, and encouraging individual development. According to Bass (Bass 1985, 1996; Avolio et al. The identification of types of transformational leadership behaviors seems to be based mostly on a factor analysis; therefore the theoretical base for differentiating among the behaviors is not explained. In the fast changing world, organizational leadership becomes more important and it is considered as a critical success factor. The third one is the Transformational leadership theory, according to which any ordinary person can learn the main leadership skills and become a leader. The leadership style incorporate social changes in the process of leaders performance which empirically more effective. Later around 1985, Bernard M. Bass further developed Burn’s theory on Leadership by adding a psychological notion to the factor. The organizational processes have not received sufficient attention in mainstream theories of transformational leadership. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! According to the trait leadership theory, good leaders possess a variety of characteristics and personal traits that enable them execute their leadership responsibilities well. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. Transformational leadership stresses achievement of higher collective purpose, of common mission and vision. The employees can be motivated by taking difficult objectives, and achieve beyond initial expectation. Transformational leadership has proven effective by far compared to other leadership styles. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Particular emphasis is placed on those arguments which question the entire theoretical basis of TL on the grounds that it has been … Transactional leadership includes contingent reward behavior and management by exceptions. 1995). Transformational leadership can be separated into 4 sections namely being idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Bass, 1985). Part three and Part Four will be the conceptual and Empirical support for the transformational Leadership theory. This strategy has been driven by empirical results but fail to be explained by strong theoretical rationale. The followers of such leaders demonstrate high levels of job satisfaction and organizational … Transformational leaders make their employees realize the value of what they do.Keywords: Transformational leadership; idealized influence; intellectual stimulation; inspirational motivation; personal consideration Transformational leadership refers to leaders who seek to create ideas and new perspectives to create a new path of growth and prosperity in front of the organization. This is particularly harmful when inter-unit cooperation is necessary to achieve organizational objectives, and further result a decline in organizational effectiveness. According to the research centre for leadership studies of University of Exeter (Bolden, R. et. A Shared Leadership Approach to Transformational Leadership Theory: Analysis of Research Methods and Philosophies: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8057-7.ch038: The main objective of this paper is to identify the research philosophy as well as research methodologies that are most appropriate for the research fields In that case, tasks that need cooperation among different unit will suffer. By developing commitment, passion and loyalty among managers and staff, they mobilize organization’s members to make fundamental changes in … He put Burns concept into one way process as transformational leadership where the leader transforms followers. Burns defined the concept of transforming leadership as, a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents…occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. The influence processes for transformational and transactional leadership are blurring, and have not been explored systematically. Transformational leadership, idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, personal considerations, Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. A less active role of leaders could also lead to 'empowerment' of followers which could even make for a useful component of transformational leadership. Regardless of their job, they should know how to influence others, provoke them into working and also they must take responsibility for outcomes. Transformational leadership refers to leaders who seek to create ideas and new perspectives to create a new path of growth and prosperity in front of the organization. In the 1970s, leadership theories approaching effectiveness was dominant, for example, path-goal theory (House & Mitchell, 1974). AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. Transformational leaders make their employees realize the value of what they do. This theory believes that people rise higher through positive, than … Since the late 1980s, new style of leadership theory emerged, as charismatic leadership (Conger &Kanungo, 1998; Hunt, Boal, & Dodge, 1999), visionary leadership (Sashkin, 1988), and also transformational leadership (Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1999). Yukl (1999) proposed that it was not clearly differentiated between transformational and charismatic leadership. Scholars and theorists believe that transformational leadership management is more effective than pragmatic leadership. One strength of transformational leadership theory is that it proposes that leaders are great at creating an overall vision for a company’s future. Transformational leadership is a more humane theory, as compared to the militaristic transactional theory. Other authors, such as Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, and Fetter (1990), have developed their own measures of transformational and transactional leadership. 1) Increase subordinates awareness of well-performance of their tasks. No plagiarism, guaranteed! The research has focused on the analysis of other leadership styles and making comparisons so as to come up with a more impactful leadership theory. Transformational Leadership theory states that highly effective leaders achieve set goals with the aid of their followers which are empowered by certain men and women with specific traits (Bass, 1990). The current environment characterized by uncertainty, global turbulence, and organizational instability calls for transformational leadership to prevail at all levels of the organization. Please use the link above to donate via Paypal. The version of transformational leadership theory that has generated the most interest was contributed by Bass and his colleagues (Bass, 1985, 1996). Bass implies, “The person who connects to their followers on an emotional level will be more elected as a prominent leader.” Characteristics of a Transformational Leader With these perspectives, a leader must possess necessary traits or character to influence others to run the organization or … Below is the illustration of transformational leadership theory that explains that if leaders have these characteristics or behaviour and able to convince the people in the organization, success would be possible. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is the most used measure of transformational leadership research developed by Bass. Transformational Leadership. Scholars and theorists believe that transformational leadership management is more effective than pragmatic leadership. Transformational leadership was first defined by James MacGregor Burns who stated that it is a leadership approach which leads to change in individuals and … al,2003), Bass transformational leaders may: Simply put forward, transformational leaders can. , 1999, and … From a wide range of settings, the positive effects of transformational leadership on several organizational outcomes have been proved. Transformational leadership includes individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, charisma, and inspirational motivation. And the characteristics of transformational leaders are indentified as courageous, trustworthy, value-driven, visionary, continuous learning, and able to deal with complexity. The above issues concerning the weaknesses of Transformational leadership research meant that empirical research can provide evidence if necessary. Transformational Leadership Model Analysis. Transformational leaders, Bass suggested, garner trust, respect, … Since the early sass, there has been an explosion of interest on transformational leadership among scholars and managers. 1996). Moreover, stated by Yukl (1999), the theory provides insufficient identification of negative effects. MacGregor had studied various political leaders, including both Franklin D. Roosevelt and John … 7 Despite the large body of literature detailing transformational leadership theory, its efficacy, and differences in leadership style that arise on account of gender, little research has been conducted with regards to factors that contribute to the development of either transformational or transactional leadership styles. Transformational Leadership is a style first described by American historian and political scientist James MacGregor Burns in his 1978 book Leadership and expanded on during the 1980s by fellow scholar Bernard M. Bass. By developing commitment, passion and loyalty among managers and staff, they mobilize organization’s members to make fundamental changes in fundaments and basis of the organization in order to be prepared and to gain necessary capabilities for moving in new directions and reaching higher ideal performance peaks. Later, researcher Bernard M. Bass expanded upon Burns's original ideas to develop what is today referred to as Bass’s Transformational Leadership Theory. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership. He proposed that the transforming leaders motivate the followers to make them be able to achieve significant goals in the work, which finally lead to values promotion in both parties. However, much of the leadership research has concentrated on characteristics and specific effects of charismatic and transformational leadership (Bass 1985; Kanungo1990; Sashkin 1988; Tichy and Devanna 1990). For example, transformational leadership theory, putting more emphasis on the role of leadership to motivate employees, is biased at the expense of most of employees (Stephens et al., 1995). Looking for a flexible role? Leadership is viewed as a key determinant of organizational effectiveness; however, the leader behaviors that ultimately influence organizational performance are seldom described in detail. While these three approaches may all prove useful in some situations, we argue that it is important to adopt a theoretically driven approach when evaluating the subdimensions of transformational leadership. Bass and Avolio, 1994) or whether it is characterized by boundary conditions – in this case national culture. On the contribution theory base of Burns and Bass, Tichy and Devanna (1986) built further on transformational leadership in organizational contexts. Scholars and theorists believe that transformational leadership management is more effective than pragmatic leadership. There is also evidence that transformational leadership is positively related to subordinate satisfaction, motivation, and performance (Lowe et al. Interestingly, by using the MLQ-1, report found the five-factor model of transformational leadership (including charisma, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, contingent reward, and management-by-exception) was fit properly to the data, however, a two-factor model(active and passive leadership factor) was also fit properly to the data (Bycio et al. Burns (1978) was the first to introduce the concept of transformational … They described the nature of transformational as a behavioral process capable of being learned. Bernard M. Bass later developed the concept of transformational … In this case, they have come up with transformational leadership which is a blend of various leadership theories (Northouse, 2016). AJOL is a Non Profit Organisation that cannot function without donations. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. This new theory of leadership had intensive interest for two reasons. By having a strong overall vision a transformational leader has the benefit of being able to deal with challenging situations well. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 323–352] that leader contingent reward behavior negatively moderates relationships between transformational leadership and subordinate performance and job satisfaction at the individual level of analysis. James MacGregor Burns (1978) was the first author to contrast transforming and transactional leadership. In the 1970s, leadership theories approaching effectiveness was dominant, for example, path-goal theory (House & … Leadership is the process of influencing other people to behave in preferred ways to accomplish organizational objectives (David H. Holt and Karren W. Wigginton). According to Bass, transformational leadership can be defined based on the impact that it has on followers. AJOL is annually audited and was also independently assessed in 2019 by E&Y. Leadership in Business “Many of the leadership styles you have come across in the module tend to be more successful in the short term, but the emerging research and literature seems to demonstrate that a transformational style is much more effective for the longer term in terms of its impact on business success and employee … Transformational leadership is a theory of leadership where a leader works with teams to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of a group; it is an integral part of the Full Range Leadership Model.Transformational leadership … To make the theory more operational, Bass and Avolio (1994) proposed five dimensions of transformational leadership, idealized behaviors, idealized motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration and idealized attitude. Researchers are using a number of tactics instead when examining transformational leadership. An Analysis of Transformational Leadership. The Bass transformational leadership theory was formulated by Bernard M. Bass in 1985. Carless suggested that the MLQ-5X does not assess separate transformational leadership behaviors, but measures a single, hierarchical construct of transformational leadership (Alannah E. 2004). VAT Registration No: 842417633. Transformational leadership is a style of leadership where the leader, along with his/her team, is able to identify the challenges ahead, resources available and build a long term vision for the team and is constantly engaging and involving the employees to perform to the best of their abilities and grow professionally and … Bass add the transformational style of leadership that Burns did not pay attention to. The term though coined by Downton (1973), the concept first emerged with the work of Burns (1978) which linked the role between leadership and followership. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. However, some other researchers have noted that. Despite a set of theory base in transformational leadership, concerns have been raised about the way in which the dimensions of the model have been defined (Avolio & Yammarino, 2002; Hunt & Conger, 1999; Shamir et al., 1993). Leadership is the process of influencing other people to behave in preferred ways to accomplish organizational objectives (David H. Holt and Karren W. Wigginton). It gives workers autonomy over specific jobs, as well as the authority to make decisions once they have been trained. This is due to its influential nature that seeks to have both the leader and the follower develop each other and together they work towards attaining a vision and in turn a new organization. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The detailed behaviors of the five dimensions are showed in Table. Traditional leadership theories emphasized rational processes; rather, theories of transformational and charismatic leadership emphasize more on emotions and values. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. It believes in inspiring employees to do great work through example and the force of a leader’s personality. Some of the basic characteristics of transformational leadership Western companies, like AT&T, IBM, GM, ventured into transformations and in the 1970’s and 1980′s the business world became very much dynamic, more competitive and less stable. This theory specifies how a leader influences his/her subordinates. The results of the study reconfirm Identification with Manager, Trust & Loyalty and Employee Satisfaction as consequences of Authentic as well as Transformational leadership. Leadership expert James McGregor Burns introduced the concept of transformational leadership in his 1978 book, "Leadership." Transformational leader is inspiring and creative and leads people in a way that they try more than their abilities in the organization and also invent and innovate in their work area. He defined transformational leadership in terms of the leaders effect on followers by analyzing the behavior used in the process. The Transformational Leadership theory states that this process is by which a person interacts with others and is able to create a solid relationship that results in a high percentage of trust, that will later result in an increase of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, in both leaders and followers. All work is written to order. 1st Aug 2018 In this regard, not only top-level managers need to show their capabilities, but all managers at all levels of the organization also feel the need to cooperate with others to achieve the desired results. Company Registration No: 4964706. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. 3) Increase subordinates awareness of working in the spirit of making good for organization rather than focus on personal benefit. 2) Consider the moral consequences of decisions, 2) look at problems from different angles, 3) Suggest new ways to complete assignments, 2) Consider individuals different needs and abilities, 2) Act in ways that get respect from others, 4) Confident that obstacles will be overcome. Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. AJOL is a non-profit, relying on your support. Some researchers used a reduced set of items to measure transformational leadership model (e.g., Tejeda et al., 2001). Transformational leader is inspiring and creative and leads people in a way that they try more than their abilities in the organization and also invent and innovate in their work area. Porter and Bigley (1997) proposed that if members of an organization are influenced by different leaders with competing visions, the result will be increased role ambiguity and role conflict (Yukl, 1995). As a result, we re-examine the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985) to identify five subdimensions of transformational leadership that will demonstrate discriminant validity with each other and with outcomes. 2004, p.16) Transformational leadership inspires people to achieve unexpected or remarkable results. A recent keywords analysis of all the articles published from 1990 to 2003 in the PsycINFO database showed that the number of studies related to transformational or charisticmatic leadership was larger than the number of all other well-known theories of leadership (e. g. , least preferred co-worker theory, path-goal theory, … Avolio (1999) proposed several alternate conceptual models of the factor structure underlying the MLQ-5X. Based on contemporary leadership theory, a range of Hypotheses regarding consequences of modern leadership models is empirically tested. These include integrity, assertiveness, empathy, honesty, openness, likeability and decision making skills (Colbert et al., 2012). Bass model of transformational leadership has been accepted by scholars and practitioners that organizations can encourage employees to perform beyond expectations. By establishing strong influence in the subunit, the leaders can achieve organizational goals more effectively, at the same time, arise competition among different subunits under different leaders. It does not clearly identify any situation where transformational leadership is detrimental. The first part will conduct a general description of the theory, followed by the review over the theory development in Part two. The version of transformational leadership theory was formulated later by Bass (Bass, 1985, 1996). Fast … Studies reviewed by Bass support that transformational and transactional leadership can be very distinctive. According to the theory, leaders can influence their subordinated by expanding their understandings of the importance of tasks, making them realize to keep organizational and … By using MLQ, the data can provide mixed support for the differentiation of the components of the transformational model, which is the most controversy issue that has not achieved the general agreement. *You can also browse our support articles here >, heighten the value of the leaders intended outcomes for the follower, motivate others to higher levels of personal achievement. Under the theory of Burns, Bass developed more. Carless (1998) examined the MLQ-5X, and found that a hierarchical model (charisma, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation) representing facets of a second-order construct which called transformational leadership was fit well according to the data. The essence of transformational theories is that leaders transform their followers through their inspirational nature and charis… 2) Increase subordinates awareness of needs for personal development, and goal-fulfillment. Management These characteristics can bring new changes to the organization’s culture. instance, in their substitutes for leadership theory Kerr & Jermier (1978) propose several subordinate, task, and, organization characteristics that could reduce the importance of leadership. theory of transformational leadership has large universal validity as suggested by some advocates (e.g. This paper will have a thorough analysis on the Transformational Leadership theory. The meta-analysis indicated transformational leadership is associated with higher levels of perceived leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with the leader and a greater willingness to put forth extra effort. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! It integrates personality traits, leader behaviour, power and influence. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! While every type of transformational leadership behavior includes a lot of components, it makes the definition more ambiguous. It is shown with evidence that the desire and effectiveness of transformational leadership style are universal (Den Warthog, et al. Implications of Transformational Leadership Theory. He defined transformational leadership as a process where "leaders and their followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation." Burns was the first person introducing the concept of transforming leadership in his book Leadership. 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