Gnosticism became the first group to be declared heretical. Greek Gospel of the Egyptians was a Gnostic gospel from around the period of 120-150 A.D. that has only been mentioned three times as existing. [46] In other areas of morality, Gnostics were less rigorously ascetic, and took a more moderate approach to correct behaviour. Proponents of the view that Paul was actually a gnostic, such as Elaine Pagels, view the reference in Colossians as a term that has to be interpreted in a gnostic sense. [153] Celia Green has written on Gnostic Christianity in relation to her own philosophy. Here, in 762, Manicheanism became the state religion of the Uyghur Empire. "[72] According to Gilles Quispel, Catholicism arose in response to Gnosticism, establishing safeguards in the form of the monarchic episcopate, the creed, and the canon of holy books. Early research into the origins of Gnosticism proposed Persian origins or influences, spreading to Europe and incorporating Jewish elements. [176] The early church heresiologists created an interpretive definition of Gnosticism, and modern scholarship followed this example and created a categorical definition. [18][note 14] Gershom Scholem once described Gnosticism as "the Greatest case of metaphysical anti-Semitism". Valentinian Gnosticism is a form of monism, expressed in terms previously used in a dualistic manner. [25], Many of the Nag Hammadi texts make reference to Judaism, in some cases with a violent rejection of the Jewish God. Moral judgements of the demiurge vary from group to group within the broad category of Gnosticism, viewing materiality as being inherently evil, or as merely flawed and as good as its passive constituent matter allows. [25], In 1966, at the Congress of Median, Buddhologist Edward Conze noted phenomenological commonalities between Mahayana Buddhism and Gnosticism,[39] in his paper Buddhism and Gnosis, following an early suggestion put forward by Isaac Jacob Schmidt. Significant amounts of original Mandaean Scripture, written in Mandaean Aramaic, survive in the modern era. [1] These various groups emphasised personal spiritual knowledge (gnosis) over the orthodox teachings, traditions, and authority of the church. Het betreft het hermetisme, de gnostiek, het mandeïsme en het manicheïsme.In de Nederlandse literatuur worden religies die gnosis als kernbegrip hadden gezamenlijk weleens benoemd met het woord gnosticisme. Their main text is the Apocryphon of John, which does not contain Christian elements,[94] and is an amalgam of two earlier myths. The term is thus a central element of Gnostic cosmology. [10][note 7][note 8][note 9] The term "Gnosticism" does not appear in ancient sources,[12][note 10] and was first coined in the 17th century by Henry More in a commentary on the seven letters of the Book of Revelation, where More used the term "Gnosticisme" to describe the heresy in Thyatira. [147] The 13th-century Zohar ("Splendor"), a foundational text in Kabbalah, is written in the style of a Jewish Aramaic Midrash, clarifying the five books of the Torah with a new Kabbalistic system that uses completely Jewish terms. Part of a vast collection of materials dealing with Gnosis and Gnosticism, both ancient and modern. [154], Early 20th-century thinkers who heavily studied and were influenced by Gnosticism include Carl Jung (who supported Gnosticism), Eric Voegelin (who opposed it), Jorge Luis Borges (who included it in many of his short stories), and Aleister Crowley, with figures such as Hermann Hesse being more moderately influenced. According to Tertullian, Valentinus was a candidate for bishop but started his own group when another was chosen. [29], Alexandria was of central importance for the birth of Gnosticism. Brill 1978, sfn error: no target: CITEREFVerardi1997 (, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Clare Goodrick-Clarke, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPerkins1987 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDillon2016 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBroek2013 (, Bentley Layton, The Gnostic Scriptures (SCM Press, London, 1987). Sethianism was one of the main currents of Gnosticism during the 2nd to 3rd centuries, and the prototype of Gnosticism as condemned by Irenaeus. [139] However, Ismailism were often criticised as non-Islamic. [33] Hans Heinrich Schaeder (1896–1957) and Hans Leisegang saw Gnosticism as an amalgam of eastern thought in a Greek form. [23] Among the Syrian-Egyptian schools and the movements they spawned are a typically more Monist view. [note 25], According to Bentley Layton "Classical Gnosticism" and "The School of Thomas" antedated and influenced the development of Valentinus, whom Layton called "the great [Gnostic] reformer" and "the focal point" of Gnostic development. [170], According to the Westar Institute's Fall 2014 Christianity Seminar Report on Gnosticism, there actually is no group that possesses all of the usually-attributed features. The Valentinians argued that such codes were intrinsic in gnosticism, secrecy being important to ensuring proper progression to true inner understanding. Asgeirsson, April D. DeConick and Risto Uro (editors), sfn error: no target: CITEREFPerkins11987 (, Deutsch, Nathaniel. [91] Hermeticism is also a western Gnostic tradition,[71] though it differs in some respects from these other groups. [138] Such Gnostic anthropogenic can be found frequently among Isma'ili traditions. [105] One offshoot was in turn headed by Dositheus, Simon Magus, and Menander. [116][note 26] Karen L. King notes that "Thomasine Gnosticism" as a separate category is being criticised, and may "not stand the test of scholarly scrutiny". In the Gnostic Christian tradition, Christ is seen as a divine being which has taken human form in order to lead humanity back to the Light. [176] According to Williams, the conceptual foundations on which the category of Gnosticism rests are the remains of the agenda of the heresiologists. [73][71][74][72] Gnostics and proto-orthodox Christians shared some terminology. Late-first century and early second century: development of Gnostic ideas, contemporaneous with the writing of the New Testament; mid-second century to early third century: high point of the classical Gnostic teachers and their systems, "who claimed that their systems represented the inner truth revealed by Jesus"; end of the second century to the fourth century: reaction by the proto-orthodox church and condemnation as heresy, and subsequent decline. Jump to navigation Jump to search. According to Layton, "the lack of uniformity in ancient Christian scripture in the early period is very striking, and it points to the substantial diversity within the Christian religion. Many Gnostic texts deal not in concepts of sin and repentance, but with illusion and enlightenment.[3]. [53], In Gnostic tradition, the term Sophia (Σοφία, Greek for "wisdom") refers to the final and lowest emanation of God. Likewise, they believed some kind of secret knowledge (“gnosis”) was essential to ensuring one’s salvation. "public builder"),[54] who is also referred to as Yaldabaoth and variations thereof in some Gnostic texts. There was a renewed interest in Gnosticism after the 1945 discovery of Egypt's Nag Hammadi library, a collection of rare early Christian and Gnostic texts, including the Gospel of Thomas and the Apocryphon of John. The author of the Testament of Solomon held Christ to be a particularly effective "thwarting" angel in the exorcism of demons. Twelve leather-bound papyrus codices buried in a sealed jar were found by a local farmer named Muhammed al-Samman. The term gnostikos may have acquired a deeper significance here. [96], According to Turner, Sethianism was influenced by Christianity and Middle Platonism, and originated in the second century as a fusion of a Jewish baptizing group of possibly priestly lineage, the so-called Barbeloites,[100] named after Barbelo, the first emanation of the Highest God, and a group of Biblical exegetes, the Sethites, the "seed of Seth". As Christianity developed and became more popular, so did Gnosticism, with both proto-orthodox Christian and Gnostic Christian groups often existing in the same places. Het evangelie van Thomas is een van de apocriefe evangeliën.In de Proloog wordt gesteld dat het door Judas Thomas geschreven zou zijn, met wie de apostel Tomas bedoeld wordt.. Het Thomas-evangelie werd in 1945 door twee boeren bij Nag Hammadi gevonden in een kruik, tezamen met een aantal andere koptische geschriften, de meeste met een gnostische inslag. Though there are many documents that could be included among the gnostic gospels, the term most commonly refers to the following: 1. The name of the group derives from the term Mandā d-Heyyi, which roughly means "Knowledge of Life". [13][note 11] The term Gnosticism was derived from the use of the Greek adjective gnostikos (Greek γνωστικός, "learned", "intellectual") by St. Irenaeus (c. 185 AD) to describe the school of Valentinus as he legomene gnostike haeresis "the heresy called Learned (gnostic). [98], According to Smith, Sethianism may have begun as a pre-Christian tradition, possibly a syncretic cult that incorporated elements of Christianity and Platonism as it grew. If their critics are reliable the basic conceptions of Gnostic cosmology are to be found in Cathar beliefs (most distinctly in their notion of a lesser, Satanic, creator god), though they did not apparently place any special relevance upon knowledge (gnosis) as an effective salvific force. [113] Valentinians treat physical reality with less contempt than other Gnostic groups, and conceive of materiality not as a separate substance from the divine, but as attributable to an error of perception which becomes symbolized mythopoetically as the act of material creation. What the other Isrealite Camps and Babylon Christian Religions and the rest of the world dont want you to know. A 1st- or 2nd-century date of composition for the lost Greek originals has been proposed, though this is disputed; the manuscripts themselves date from the 3rd and 4th centuries.