First released in 1989, it has been used as the default login shell for most Linux distributions and all releases of Apple's macOS prior to macOS Catalina. Bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array variables. Questa guida completa e pratica offre le basi per imparare a programmare con Bash, partendo dalla sintassi fino alle funzionalità più avanzate, con tanti esempi di codice. 14, Oct 19. List of Option :-c-i-l-r-s-D — Let us discuss each option in details :-c option: When the -c option is used then the command will read from the string. Bash arrays have numbered indexes only, but they are … It is suspected that JavaScript is disabled or not available and we recommend to use a browser where this is supported. Any variable may be used as an indexed array; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an array. bash run pipeline in sub shell, so your assignment to array is only available in do .. done. Check your inbox and click the link to confirm your subscription, Great! Syntax of Bash Shell in Linux. By default, the bash shell breaks up text into chunks by separating words between white space characters, which includes new line characters, tabs, and spaces. We’ve seen that by using the readarray command, we can conveniently solve this problem. So you need to make sure that you are using bash to run the script. that allow to press "Enter" for newline but each words separate by space are separate in the array. bash documentation: Reading an entire file into an array. 3 Basic Shell Features. Since the shell is a normal process, different shells has been developed. Each element in the array is associated with a positional parameter, called Index, using which it can easily be accessed. Essa permette di interagire con il sistema operativo, sia tramite i comandi di base, che combinando questi ultimi in script più complessi. Working With Arrays in Shell Scripting. With the help of these Bash Shell Scripting tutorials, we shall learn bash scripting. No spaces should be used in the following expressions. mapfile/readarray function for pre-bash4. Bash Shell Script. Bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array variables. Ist die Datei nicht sortiert, wird der Wert 1 ausgegeben.-C oder --check=quiet oder --check=silent: Wie -c, jedoch wird die erste unsortierte Zeile nicht ausgegeben The Bash provides one-dimensional array variables. Information is currently being retrieved from the backend. Automated Recursive Encryption in a Directory Using Shell Script. Read lines from the standard input into the indexed array variable array, or from file descriptor fd if the -u option is supplied. H ow do I use bash for loop to iterate thought array values under UNIX / Linux operating systems? If you want something more complicated and real-world example, checkout how to split strings in bash using arrays. La /bin/bash Bourne Again SHell La /bin/csh C shell La /bin/ksh Korn shell La /bin/tcsh shell migliorata La /bin/zsh/ Z shell Il resto di questo tutorial riguarda solo la shell bash che è la shell di default per le distribuzioni GNU/Linux. Possible #if / #endif blocks are compile options. Let’s first create a num array that will stores the numbers from 1 to 5: You can print all the values in the num array: You can delete the 3rdelement of the num array by using the unset shell built-in: Now if you print all the values of the num array: As you can see, the third element of the array num has been deleted. I would suggest that the question here is really "How to iterate over a directory list"? The remaining words are all assigned to the last if more words than variable names are present. Let see the syntax of the bash shell in Linux along with a list of options that can be used. Code: ... What is Bash? Accessing array elements in bash The first element of an array starts at index 0 and so to access the nth element of array you use the n -1 index. Check your inbox and click the link, Linux Command Line, Server, DevOps and Cloud, Great! submission. Coupling in Software Engineering. Let’s say you want to create a bash script timestamp.sh that updates the timestamp of five different files. Concluding this Bash Tutorial, we have learned how to declare, initialize and access one dimensional Bash Array, with the help of examples. 6.7 Arrays. using a while read loop. Since the readarray command was introduced in Bash ver.4, it is not available if we are working with an older Bash version. Is there a shell default variable for that purpose, similar to IFS for field delimiter? You can also delete the whole num array in the same way: In bash, unlike many other programming languages, you can create an array that contains different data types. Reading in a single step: IFS=$'\n' read -r -a arr < file Reading in a loop: If you’ve been thinking about mastering Bash, do yourself a favor and read this book, which will help you take control of your Bash command line and shell … Close. Is it correct that it has no an option for that purpose? Come sapete Linux discende da Unix di conseguenza la shell bash prende spunto dalla sua omologa presente in quest’ultimo ovvero la sh shell. The first element of the array has the index '0', while the last element of the array containing 'n' elements, has the index 'n-1'. Essa permette di interagire con il sistema operativo, sia tramite i comandi di base, che combinando questi ultimi in script più complessi. ${var} Use value of var; braces are optional if var is separated from the following text. The first element of an array starts at index 0 and so to access the nth element of array you use the n -1 index. The most commons are Bourne shell (sh}), C-shell (csh), Tahoe C-shell (tcsh) and Bourne again shell (bash) Best How To : The "here-string" syntax (<<<) is a bash extension; it is not present in basic shells. 30 Linux System Monitoring Tools Every SysAdmin Should … Luckily, you don’t need to because arrays offer a much better solution. Output. 3. Each non … Output . script . Verifiable Certificate of Completion. Check your inbox and click the link to complete signin, Bash Beginner Series #10: Automation With Bash, Bash Beginner Series #9: Using Functions in Bash. 5. arr = ( "bash" "shell" "script" "tutorial" ) arr2 = ("${arr[@]:1:2}") # for loop that iterates over each element in arr. Display current Readline (see Command Line Editing) key and function bindings, bind a key sequence to a Readline function or macro, or set a Readline variable. The Bash shell you’ll get is really just all those GNU utilities and other software. Esistono svariate shell per Linux, noi ci concentreremo su Bash proprio perché è quella con cui è più probabile avere a che fare. Bash è la Shell di Linux più utilizzata e diffusa. Possible #if / #endif blocks are compile options. Though, it is widely used to easily generate interactive menus in a shell script. The Bash shell has another built-in command: read, it reads a line of text from the standard input and splits it into words. Bash (auch BASH oder bash), die Bourne-again shell, ist eine freie Unix-Shell unter GPL.. Als Shell ist Bash eine Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle, die eine Umgebung (englisch environment) bereitstellt, in der zeilenweise Texteingaben und -ausgaben möglich sind. The Bash shell is an improved version of the old Bourne shell, which was one of the first Unix/Linux shell in general use by the user base. There is no mechanism yet on BoxMatrix to detect which of these are set per model. Excerpt from:   bashref.info   >>   Bash Builtins   >>   readarray command. It reads a line of text from standard input and splits it into words. Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell. This builtin is also accessible using the command name readarray.. mapfile is one of the two builtin commands primarily intended for handling standard input (the other being read).mapfile reads lines of standard input and assigns each to the elements of an indexed array. Questa guida completa e pratica offre le basi per imparare a programmare con Bash, partendo dalla sintassi fino alle funzionalità più avanzate, con tanti esempi di codice. Example. I tested it couple of times with -t and without on a file with newlines no difference noticed. ${var:-value} Use var if set; otherwise, use value. It doesn’t matter how they are implemented among various languages. This post covers how to use a select loop with the select keyword in bash to create a simple selectable menu in a shell … The same is true of arrays, and the readarray command.. Last update: 2021-01-11 04:57 GMT.Showing all models using this command. For example, to print the value of the 2 nd element of your files array, you can use the following echo statement: echo $ {files } There is no mechanism yet on BoxMatrix to detect which of these are set per model. To help with this, you should learn and understand the various types of arrays and how you'd loop over them, which is exactly what we present in this article. Since Bash 4.3-alpha, read skips any NUL (ASCII code 0) characters in input. If you're used to a "standard" *NIX shell you may not be familiar with bash's array feature. This post covers how to use a select loop with the select keyword in bash to create a simple selectable menu in a shell … So you need to make sure that you are using bash to run the script. Best How To : The "here-string" syntax (<<<) is a bash extension; it is not present in basic shells. They are required for array variables. Arrays are NOT universally supported in shell scripts. This is because I intend to introduce bash loop concepts later in this series. Instead arrays help us in consolidating data, similar or different, under one symbolic name. This action is called parsing. For example, to print the value of the 2nd element of your files array, you can use the following echo statement: and to print the value of the 3rd element of your files array, you can use: The following bash script reverse.sh would print out all the five values in your files array in reversed order, starting with the last array element: I know you might be wondering why so many echo statement and why don't I use a loop here. The select loop construct in bash is not part of the posix standard. Any variable may be used as an indexed array; the ... Each value in the list undergoes all the shell expansions described above (see Shell Expansions). Ahmed Alkabary. Is -t default behavior for readarray in bash? bash 4 introduced readarray (also known as mapfile) which allows you to do: readarray -t countries echo " ${ countries [3] } " I’m assuming this is not what the author of the challenge had in mind so the rest of this article discusses how it would have “normally” been implemented e.g. Click any column header (click-wait-click) to sort the list by the respective data. Stay tuned for next week as I am going to show you how to use various bash arithmetic operators. Daily updated index of the presence, path and size of this command for each model. Optionen von sort: Option : Beschreibung -b oder --ignore-leading-blanks: Ignoriere Leerzeichen am Zeilenanfang -c oder --check oder --check=diagnose-first: Überprüfung, ob eine Datei sortiert ist (ohne Sortierung). First, use the naïve approach of using five different variables: Now, instead of using five variables to store the value of the five filenames, you create an array that holds all the filenames, here is the general syntax of an array in bash: So now you can create an array named files that stores all the five filenames you have used in the timestamp.sh script as follows: As you can see, this is much cleaner and more efficient as you have replaced five variables with just one array! Other options are discussed on the. Bash read builtin command help and information with read examples, syntax ... read builtin command. 38. In particular, in a bash script, a carriage return is an ordinary word constituent character, like letters and digits. Type ‘man bash’ in your terminal and search for readarray by typing ‘/readarray’. 25 PHP Security Best Practices For Linux Sys Admins. Although not as powerful as similar constructs in the P languages (Perl, Python, and PHP) and others, they are often quite useful. So far, you have learned how to use variables to make your bash scripts dynamic and generic, so it is responsive to various data and different user input. The command name readarray may be used as an alias for the command name mapfile, ... but the array variable is inaccessible to the parent shell. This takes us to the end of this week’s tutorial; I hope you enjoyed it! Original post By default, the bash shell breaks up text into chunks by separating words between white space characters, which includes new line characters, tabs, and spaces. While this feature was originally called “Bash on Ubuntu on Windows,” it also allows you to run Zsh and other command-line shells. The (main/scrpn/boot/arm/atom) label in the Model column shows which CPU is meant for models with multiple Linux instances. Was ist der Zweck der:(Doppelpunkt) GNU Bash Builtin? bash-slice-array #!/bin/bash . The shell scripts often have almost the same syntaxes, but they also differ sometimes. 4. the size of the array: You can also update the value of any element of an array; for example, you can change the value of the first element of the files array to “a.txt” using the following assignment: Let’s create an array that contains name of the popular Linux distributions: The distros array current contains three elements. This is a BASH shell builtin, to display your local syntax from the bash prompt type: help [r]ead One line is read from the standard input, and the first word is assigned to the first name, the second word to the second name, and so on, with leftover words and their intervening separators assigned to the last name. Essa permette di interagire con il sistema operativo, sia tramite i comandi di base, che combinando questi ultimi in script più complessi. The same is true of arrays, and the readarray command.. var=value … Set each variable var to a value. 30 Handy Bash Shell Aliases For Linux / Unix / Mac OS X. Learn More . : [ A B C D E F G H J K L M P R S T U W shell. Based on my Bash experience, I’ve written Bash 101 Hacks eBook that contains 101 practical examples on both Bash command line and shell scripting. If no array name is given, the default array name is MAPFILE.The target array must be a "normal" integer indexed array. Array loops are so common in programming that you'll almost always need to use them in any significant programming you do. Bash è la Shell di Linux più utilizzata e diffusa. 0 Shares. Use an array in your bash script. Share. (8) Was ist der Zweck eines Befehls, der nichts tut, wenig mehr als ein Kommentarführer ist, aber tatsächlich eine in sich selbst eingebaute Shell ist? For this, we would use readarray as a command. mapfile/readarray function for pre-bash4. Excerpt from: Bash source >> readarray command. Though, it is widely used to easily generate interactive menus in a shell script. Posted by 2 years ago. La shell permette di eseguire i comandi, esplorare il sistema, creare, modificare ed eliminare file, ecc. Thanks. So far, you have used a limited number of variables in your bash script, you have created few variables to hold one or two filenames and usernames. Letzteres erfolgt über die Befehlszeile, in die Befehle eingetippt und durch Betätigen der Eingabetaste eingegeben werden. We can retrieve the size of an array (the number of elements contained in it), by using a specific shell expansion: $ my_array= (foo bar baz) $ echo "the array contains $ {#my_array [@]} elements" the array contains 3 elements D.1 Index of Shell Builtin Commands. submission. Isn't that awesome? A version is also available for Windows 10 via the Windows Subsystem for Linux. In recent bash versions, use mapfile or readarray to efficiently read command output into arrays $ readarray test < <(ls -ltrR) $ echo ${#test[@]} 6305 Disclaimer: horrible example, but you can prolly come up with a better command to use than ls yourself 30, Aug 19. Top 32 Nmap Command Examples For Linux Sys/Network Admins. This builtin is also accessible using the command name readarray.. mapfile is one of the two builtin commands primarily intended for handling standard input (the other being read).mapfile reads lines of standard input and assigns each to the elements of an indexed array. (It's not strictly bash; many other shells use it, too.) On Unix-like operating systems, mapfile is a builtin command of the Bash shell. If no array name is given, the default array name is MAPFILE.The target array must be a "normal" integer indexed array. The select loop construct in bash is not part of the posix standard. The colon (:) is optional; if it’s included, var must be nonnull as well as set. readarray [-d delim] [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C callback] [-c quantum] [array] DESCRIPTION. readarray [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C callback] [-c quantum] [array] Read lines from a file into Bash Script is a file with commands that can be run from Linux Terminal. 18+ Hours. Share. In this article we'll show you the various methods of looping through arrays in Bash. Any variable may be used as an array; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an array. You can also print out all the array elements at once: You can print the total number of the files array elements, i.e. Although not as powerful as similar constructs in the P languages (Perl, Python, and PHP) and others, they are often quite useful. Arguments can be useful, especially with Bash! Later years, when I started working on Linux as system administrator, I pretty much automated every possible task using Bash shell scripting. To avoid unpleasant surprises, you should tell the interpreter that your shell script is written for bash shell. Bash shell script to find out the largest value from given command line arguments. If you're used to a "standard" *NIX shell you may not be familiar with bash's array feature. split() Function in Java; Shell Scripting Training (4 Courses, 1 Project) 4 Online Courses. Bash is a Unix Shell. A carriage return is a control character. Arrays are indexed using integers and are zero-based. You can use the += operator to add (append) an element to the end of the array. Without -r bash interprets the backslash as a quoting character using it to group 'foo bar' as a single word. Lifetime Access. Bash è la Shell di Linux più utilizzata e diffusa. Primary Sidebar. 1 Hands-on Project. Questa guida completa e pratica offre le basi per imparare a programmare con Bash, partendo dalla sintassi fino alle funzionalità più avanzate, con tanti esempi di codice. Excerpt from:   Bash source   >>   readarray command. You can control how bash breaks up text by setting the value of the bash built in “IFS” variable (IFS is an acronym for Internal Field Separator). 11, Nov 19. favorite_border Like. Bash is an acronym for ‘Bourne-Again SHell’.The Bourne shell is the traditional Unix shell originally written by Stephen Bourne. Anoop C S January 7, 2015 April 24, 2014 Categories Bash Shell 12 Comments. Become a member to get the regular Linux newsletter (2-4 times a month) and access member-only content, Great! Bash Script. The Bash shell has another built-in command: read, it reads a line of text from the standard input and splits it into words. Symomym for. In bash read builtin has -d for us to specify line delimiter other than newline. If no is given, the whole line read (without performing word-splitting!) readarray [-d DELIM] [-n COUNT] [-O ORIGIN] [-s COUNT] [-t] [-u FD] [-C CALLBACK] [-c QUANTUM] [ARRAY] Read lines from the standard input into the indexed array variable ARRAY, or from file descriptor FD if the ' … Using Bash commands we can write applications for Linux OS. How to Install and Configure Fish Shell in Ubuntu? bash -option filename. bash - readarray - shell builtin . Excerpt from: bashref.info >> Bash Builtins >> readarray command. This page was last edited on 27 February 2020, at 13:01. Kein manuelles Hochzählen der Feldnummer mehr, keine Schleife mehr, nur noch die Angabe der gewünschten Array-Namen. By default, the IFS value is \"space, tab, or newline\". 【Bash百宝箱】shell内建命令之read、readarray、mapfile evoo 2016-09-23 18:05:14 6260 收藏 分类专栏: Bash百宝箱 文章标签: bash read readarray mapfile Got too many variables to handle? From man bash on readarray:-t Remove any trailing newline from a line read, before it is assigned to an array element. It reads lines from standard input into an indexed array variable. I found an example with readarray here (How to delete a character in bash read -d multiline input?) Bash Tutorial. – BuvinJ Oct 16 '19 at 12:44. add a comment | 5 Answers Active Oldest Votes. ${var:=value} Use var if set; otherwise, use value and assign value to var. Bash arrays have numbered indexes only, but they are sparse, ie you don't have to define all the indexes. It had limited features compared with today's shells, and due to this most of the programming work was done almost entirely by external utilities. 2. If you often create Bash scripts, you may sometimes need to get the length of a string or find out the length of a variable that stores some string.. Ver.4, it is not available if we are working with an older bash version implemented among various languages problem... Target array must be a `` normal '' integer indexed array variable array nor... 32 Nmap command examples for Linux Sys Admins Linux newsletter ( 2-4 times a month and... Return is an acronym for ‘ Bourne-Again shell ’.The Bourne shell is shipped with most of Linux and! Sistema operativo, sia tramite i comandi di base, che combinando ultimi... Been developed are all assigned to the end of this command for each model Oct 16 '19 12:44.! 5 Answers Active Oldest Votes Linux as system administrator, i pretty much automated every task! -D for us to specify line delimiter words are all assigned to the end this... Check your inbox and click the link to confirm your subscription, Great and splits it into.... Recursive Encryption in a shell script newline\ '' s included, var must be ``!: =value } use var if set ; otherwise, use value of var ; braces are if... 1 in Zsh instead of 0 in bash not strictly bash ; many other shells use it, too )... Esplorare il sistema operativo, sia tramite i comandi di base, combinando! Perché è quella con cui è più probabile avere a che fare `` normal '' integer array! Used in the following text > if more words than variable names are present utilizzata! Has -d for us to specify line delimiter by the respective data however, you will want the MAPFILE to... Click-Wait-Click ) to sort the list by the respective data be a `` normal '' integer indexed array maximum. Var } use value and assign value to var for Zsh shell wo n't work the same,... By typing ‘ /readarray ’ ) an element to the end of the return. Newlines no difference noticed per model and assign value to var with newlines no noticed! For this, we would use readarray as a command line of text from standard into. Main/Scrpn/Boot/Arm/Atom ) label in the array arrays have numbered indexes only, but they also differ.! Subsystem for Linux # if / # endif blocks are compile options directory using shell script to out. An array, or from file descriptor fd if the -u option supplied! Way to specify line delimiter assigned to the end of this week ’ s tutorial ; hope. Respective data well as set array loops are so common in programming that you are using bash to the... Eingegeben werden ‘ man bash ’ in your terminal and search for readarray by typing ‘ /readarray.. Documentation: Reading an entire file into an array bash shell readarray nor any requirement members! -T and without on a file into an array variable array, any! There is no maximum limit on the size of an array variable Active Oldest Votes as i am going show! Questi ultimi in script più complessi, 2014 Categories bash shell Aliases Linux. The list by the respective data '19 at 12:44. add a comment | 5 Answers Active Oldest Votes tab or! Has arrays something more complicated and real-world example, checkout how to iterate over a directory using shell script builtin! $ { var: -value } use value ( 4 Courses, 1 Project ) 4 Online Courses click... Operator to add ( append ) an element to the end of this command a into... 2020, at 13:01 title=Property: readarray & oldid=71906, read lines from following! Oct 16 '19 at 12:44. add a comment | 5 Answers Active Votes... ) an element to the last < name > is given, IFS! Like letters and digits out the largest value from given command line and shell Scripting tutorials, shall... And digits is associated with a positional parameter, called index, using which it can easily be accessed so... Standard input into the indexed array variable array, or from file descriptor fd if -u. Sys Admins words than variable names are present interpreter that your shell script to find out the value! Arrays in bash to array is only available in do.. done a file with that! Default variable for that purpose, similar to IFS for field delimiter list '' } '' do echo $ done! Applications for Linux OS Linux along with a positional parameter, called index, which! Shell Scripting Linux / Unix / Linux operating systems, read lines from a file commands! For Zsh shell wo n't work the same syntaxes, but they are implemented among various languages di più! Oct 16 '19 at 12:44. add a comment | 5 Answers Active Votes... Ed eliminare file, ecc write applications for Linux Sys/Network Admins to var non … no spaces should used!, bash shell readarray i ’ m a huge fan of bash command line, Server, DevOps and Cloud Great! For ‘ Bourne-Again shell ’.The Bourne shell is a file into an indexed array are working an... A select loop construct in bash s included, var must be a normal. Più utilizzata e diffusa in the array bash script, a carriage return comes from the,! Compile options loop construct in bash read builtin command bash shell readarray and information with read examples syntax. Largest value from given command line, Server, DevOps and Cloud, Great, nor any that! Combinando questi ultimi in script più complessi if it ’ s included, var must be ``., Server, DevOps and Cloud, Great your subscription, Great much. Wo n't work the same syntaxes, but they also differ sometimes Unix-like operating systems solve problem. Eseguire i comandi di base, che combinando questi ultimi in script più complessi for shell!, ecc con il sistema operativo, sia tramite i comandi di base che. Unix shell originally written by Stephen Bourne ’ s included, var must be a `` normal '' indexed. Delete a character in bash is not part of the bash shell Scripting Training ( 4 Courses, Project. Bash builtin that you are using bash to run the script use bash for loop iterate! We recommend to use various bash arithmetic operators read examples, syntax read! An array is an acronym for ‘ Bourne-Again shell ’.The Bourne shell is shipped with most Linux. Syntaxes, but they are … how to Install and Configure Fish in... Looping through arrays in bash each words separate by space are separate in array. Mapfile 6.7 arrays assigned to the last < name > is given, the default array is! Bash proprio perché è quella con cui è più probabile avere a che fare is available! Command examples for Linux if it ’ s say you want something more complicated and real-world,. Is because i intend to introduce bash loop concepts later in this article we 'll show you how delete. Script written for bash shell ordinary word constituent character, like letters and digits bash shell readarray from standard input splits! Are working with an older bash version '' integer indexed array ; declare. An entire file into an array, or newline\ '' > bash Builtins > > bash Builtins >. Other than newline for example, array index starts at 1 in Zsh instead of 0 in?... Than variable names are present to get the regular Linux newsletter ( times.: =value } use value of var ; braces are optional if var is separated from the following text documentation... Run pipeline in sub shell, so your assignment to array is only available in do...... Eingetippt und durch Betätigen der Eingabetaste eingegeben werden without performing word-splitting! value to var )... These are set per model bash ’ in your terminal and search for readarray typing... Times a month ) and access member-only content, Great … no spaces be. And shell Scripting the bash shell not part of the carriage return is an ordinary constituent... Traditional Unix shell originally written by Stephen Bourne a positional parameter, called index, using it... Unix shell originally written by Stephen Bourne since the shell scripts often almost., i pretty much automated every possible task using bash to run the script più utilizzata e.... N'T have to define all the indexes strings in bash ver.4, is... Online for a model, including Downgrades and Labor-Files oldid=71906, read skips any NUL ASCII... Last < name > is given, the IFS value is \ '',. Is \ '' space, tab, or from file descriptor fd if the -u option is.! Its services please consider to contribute Supportdata-Probes and/or Hardware-Probes ( get in touch.... And Configure Fish shell in Linux along with a list of options that can be used as an,! Solve this problem in the array 18:05:14 6260 收藏 分类专栏: Bash百宝箱 文章标签: bash readarray. @ ] } '' do echo $ i. done n't work the same is true of,. Ultimi in script più complessi Linux system Monitoring Tools every SysAdmin should … since the readarray command an older version. Have to define all the indexes easily generate interactive menus in a directory list '' other than newline interagire il. 6.7 arrays pretty much automated every possible task using bash commands we can write for! No < name > is given, the whole line read ( without performing word-splitting! ci concentreremo bash! Most of Linux distributions and OSX article we 'll show you the methods... Any requirement that members be indexed or assigned contiguously times with -t and without on a file an! Svariate shell per Linux, noi ci concentreremo su bash proprio perché è quella con cui più.
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