As an example, the tensile strength of all the produced composites when compared with untreated fibers increased except with maleic anhydride treatment. The cultivation process is near flax cultivation. Terms & Conditions, By visiting our site, you agree to our privacy policy regarding cookies, tracking statistics, etc. The obtained result showed that the rice hulls have promising results to manufacture bio-based insulation products. Shop our 100% hemp fiber for sale. Cellulose . Hemp fiber now is used, reconsidered and/or developed for numerous textile applications in nonwovens, wovens and knit configurations where its inherent natural physical properties show exceptional promise. Composites made of hemp fibers with thermoplastic, thermoset, and biodegradable matrices have exhibited good mechanical properties. Table 1: The composition of Hemp. There were frequent discussions about modifying the EU directives in favor of green materials, but to date, this has not been accomplished. The results show that use of a carbon tax has almost no influence at all in the cost of the mixtures with negative carbon footprint. Today, hemp fiber composites are used in many middle- and high-class automotives. For instance, a continual and reliable supply is of utmost importance for the automotive industry. The coefficient of mixtures varied in the range of 2.45–2.6 kg/m2 H0.5 for mixtures with no fibers and for the mixture with 8% hemp fibers. Surface treatment. This synergetic effect is very important to enhance adhesion or mechanical interlocking between the sisal fibers and the PP matrix. The flexural properties of the composites were found to be anisotropic. Hemp-based materials can be recycled due to their biodegradable structure. The composites with untreated fibers showed lower absorption of epoxy in the fibers, while the composites with treated ones showed higher absorption of epoxy in the fibers due to alkaline treatment. The most common form of this eco-friendly composite is a material that replicates fiberglass. performed the modification of flax fiber surface by alkali, corona discharge, maleic anhydride (MA) grafting, and aminopropyl triethoxysilane treatment for the combination with PLA [93,94]. Fiberglass Cloth – Composite Cloth. Bast fibers are cellulose-rich, and hurds average higher levels of hemicellulose and lignin than bast fibers do (Schluttenhofer and Yuan 2017). Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers Microscopic differentiation. Defining Hemp: A Fact Sheet Congressional Research Service 1 otanically, hemp and marijuana are from the same species of plant, Cannabis sativa,1 but from different varieties or cultivars.2 However, hemp and marijuana are genetically distinct forms of cannabis that are distinguished by their use and chemical composition as yarn had the same color as retted hemp fibers but was more cellulose rich. Hemp is also one of the bast fibers known to ancient Asians, long before the birth of Christ. (2011) developed hemp-based innovative material with 0.060 W/m K thermal conductivity. By the FE-SEM images presented in Fig. The acetylation, isocyanate, maleic anhydride, and potassium permanganate treatments were used in kenaf fibers in order to improve the adhesion of the fibers to the polyurethane matrix by Datta and Kopczynska [97]. Like many other natural, or bast, fibers such as bamboo, coconut, flax, jute, sisal, kenaf, and more, hemp fibers act as strong reinforcement in composite materials. Along with bamboo, hemp is one of the fastest growing plants on Earth. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009826000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128194812000040, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081001356000077, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081004111000182, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024447000162, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128036228000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012763952950006X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008102177400001X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128199466000072, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024447000150, Performance of Bio-based Building Materials, 2017, Performance of Bio-based Building Materials, Fire-retardant bioproducts for green buildings, Nadir Yildirim, ... Mehmet Emin Ergun, in, Bio-Based Materials and Biotechnologies for Eco-Efficient Construction, Manohar et al., 2006; Panyakaew and Fotios, 2011, Integrated industrial lignocellulose biorefinery chains, Creep behaviour of plant fibre composites, Advanced High Strength Natural Fibre Composites in Construction, Carbon dioxide sequestration of fly ash alkaline-based mortars containing recycled aggregates and reinforced by hemp fibers, Mohammad Mastali, ... Fernando Pacheco-Torgal, in, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, Plants By-Products and Fibers’ Industrial Exploitation, Biotransformation of Agricultural Waste and By-Products, COMPOSITES AND FOAMS FROM PLANT OIL-BASED RESINS, Surface modification of natural fibers in polymer composites, Diana P. Ferreira, ... Raul Fangueiro, in, Green Composites for Automotive Applications, Carbon dioxide sequestration on mortars containing recycled aggregates. The use of natural fibers in automotive composites versus fiberglass results in both ecological and technological benefits. 1.17 shows microscope images of oil palm epoxy composites. For example, current legislation does not recognize some of the intrinsic benefits of biobased insulation and imposes unnecessary limits to its use. Figure 16.8. The insulation and construction industry, as well as furniture and the whole reinforced (biobased) plastic market, also hold great potential. Themechanical properties of hemp fibers are comparable to those of glass fibers. Fiber specific hemp cultivars are planted at about 50kg per Ha, and anyone that knows how small a hemp seed actually is will know 50kg is more than 50,000 seeds.This means you would need an aquaponics facility that can house 50,000 plants on one Ha of land, while reducing the production cost bellow the market value which isn’t possible at this scale. (2011) produced a bio-based innovative product that contains flax tow without any synthetic binders. the concentration of lignin reductions, the portion of low molecular celluloses reductions and thus the macro molecules of cellulose are shortened. Flax and Hemp solutions meet not only the technical requirements of composite manufacturers in terms of innovative and high-performance reinforcements, but also societal expectations in terms of fiber traceability. Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. As expected, the treated sisal/PLA composites showed better mechanical properties than untreated ones because the adhesion between fibers and PLA matrix was improved. This sees a significant influence of time over the capability of supporting loads on both the fibre and the polymer matrix. Therefore, the alkali treatment changed the structure of oil palm fiber inducing better compatibility with the matrix. These are long (bast) fibers and the short (core fibers). Bleaching hemp fibers presents challenges, and this has contributed to the plant’s limited use as a fiber (Mahapatra 2018). In the absence of a viable commercial and local market for hemp by-products, the business case cannot be profitable. Orue et al. Bioinsulation products are detailed under following sections. Values of diameter, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and IFSS of PALF and kenaf fibers. Hemp-based materials absorb water because of its nature. The minimum and maximum water absorption was recorded as 9.5% and 11% for mixtures with no fibers and for the mixture with 8% hemp fibers, respectively. Fig. The design and the internal cellular and fibrous structure influences thermal properties of the final product (Sandak et al., 2019). This paper presents results of research aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of the fibers in order to explain a mechanism for the favorable influence of textiles made of these fibers when in contact with human skin. Manufacturers use hemp fiber to produce mineral-based composites in a manner akin to using glass fiber to reinforce plaster or cement. Exhibit 1.2 – Bast and Hurd Hemp Fiber Composition. On the other hand, European hemp fibers are completely unprotected by the competition from imported exotic fibers like jute, kenaf, or sisal, which may not even show a sustainability certification like imported biofuels. Nevertheless, HempFlax has grown to be a professional hemp processing company, currently employing 22 people. 1.17(c) we can observe the fracture surface of oil palm fiber epoxy. (2005) produced rice hull-based particleboard and investigated its thermal performance properties. A lack of incorporation of biobased alternatives, due to a low level acceptance or awareness, help provide extremely low-weight biocomposites for automotive interiors, such as door panels, made using natural fibers, which have only 40% of the area weight of glass fiber-reinforced plastic alternatives. Themechanical properties of hemp fibers are comparable to those of glass fibers. Cannabinoids are the typical group of C21 compounds present in hemp, and they are in the form of carboxylic acids, analogs, and transformation products (Mechoulam and Gaoni 1967; Razdan 1986). It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 50,000 years ago. Today, in the case of hemp fiber-based products, there are several technical hurdles in the field of standards and regulations: Lack of specifications, which results in prejudices against biobased properties; Irrelevant or misleading information for the consumer; A lack of compliance with less important specifications due to the intrinsic physical properties of biobased products; and. The results show that 6% hemp fiber is the maximum content that allows a mechanical performance sufficient for masonry applications. Mohammad Mastali, ... Fernando Pacheco-Torgal, in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018. By analyzing the SEM images, it is clear that the surface roughness increased with alkali treatment (a) giving rise to more contacting points and improving the mechanical interlocking between PLA and fiber. regarding the compatibility improvement with polymer matrices. 1.15 exhibits, the combination of alkali with high intensity ultrasound (HIU) treatment was studied in sisal fibers by Krishnaiah et al. The flexural properties of the composites were found to be anisotropic. As HempFlax’s goal was to limit the growing area to a radius of 80 km from the processing point, dedicated factory storage spaces for both raw material (hemp straw) and finished products were built. Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. Complex macro-composition of hemp and numerous compounds within the plant have the potential to exhibit antibacterial activity. In addition, contracting 1200 ha of hemp in The Netherlands, Germany, and now Romania provides an important source of income to farmers and benefits the rural economy in general. Hemp has a deep rooting system, has a favorable influence on the soil structure, and curtails the presence of nematodes and fungi. Figure 1.14. 16.8 represents the water absorption capillarity coefficients for different mixtures. The traces of epoxy on the fiber proved that fiber itself absorbed an amount of epoxy that changed its structure to become brittle. Flexural testing. Hemp vs Marijuana: Composition. The kenaf fibers are obtained from Hibiscus cannabinus, a fast vegetating plant that can achieve a height of 3.5 m in 2 years. Unfortunately, these sectors are currently unaware of the existence of such a sustainable, renewable biobased alternative, making communication on the subject all the more necessary. Designed and built 100% sustainable with hemp composite blades and bamboo shaft. A number of hemp fiber … Diana P. Ferreira, ... Raul Fangueiro, in Green Composites for Automotive Applications, 2019. In addition, the ease of manufacturing complex shapes via normal composite liquid molding operations provides a significant cost advantage for these materials. The main barrier for the scale-up of investment in integrated biorefineries is the missing market opportunities for by-products like hemp shivs (woody core, pith) and dust. Furthermore, present panels and rolls made with coir fibers are already accessible on the market for wall systems and roof insulations. From an earlier study it was found that when hemp bast fibers were heated above the glass transition temperature of lignin, there was a migration of lignin to the surface of the fiber. Richard P. Wool, in Bio-Based Polymers and Composites, 2005. Table 1.5. Adapting fibers to market needs so that they can be used in conventional applications and technologies has increased their market potential tremendously. This is as a result of not only its inherent properties but also the environmental benefits in terms of energy saving during construction phases. Flax and Hemp solutions meet not only the technical requirements of composite manufacturers in terms of innovative and high-performance reinforcements, but also societal expectations in terms of fiber traceability. Research into microbial degumming has been conducted since the 1950s; progress has been made in the microbial degumming of hemp peel but the processes still cannot meet the requirements of industrial production. This was especially important in the startup period and enabled producers to decrease feedstock costs. These operations are connected with the change of average chemical composition of fiber material, e.g. The transportation of water in the mortars reinforced with hemp fiber could be classified by three mechanisms, which are included: (1) by diffusion inside the matrix, (2) by imperfections within the matrix (micro-space, pores, or cracks), and (3) by capillarity along the fiber/matrix interface. It partially degrades hemp hemicelluloses and lignin, then the hemp fibers obtained are bleached by hydrogen peroxide to prepare degummed hemp for further carding and processing into pure yarn. The use of hemp fibers as reinforcement in composite materials has increased in recent years as a response to the increasing demand for developing biodegradable, sustainable, and recyclable materials. Fiber Material Composition. Kushwaha and Kumar modified bamboo fibers with alkali, maleic anhydride, permanganate, benzoyl chloride, and benzyl chloride treatments for their use as reinforcements in epoxy and polyester matrices [98]. The influence of alkali treatment on hemp fibers was analyzed by [92] in a study where the hemp fibers were alkali treated with NaOH and Na2SO3 solution, while the polymer used in the final composite (polypropylene) was also modified with MAPP. Hemp experienced a maximum employment during the 17 th century’s seafaring where up to 100 tons of hemp fibre was employed per sailing ship. The short core fibers are more similar to hard wood fibers. The presence of GPTMS, therefore, changes the chemical composition of the hemp fiber surfaces and, in turn, the fiber morphology. Our hemp fabric has been used in many fiberglass applications such as drums, skis, skateboard and snowboards, and kayaks. In this regard, Yarbrough et al. Accelerated carbonation showed a carbon sequestration of −102 kgCO2eq/m3 and a carbon footprint of 38 kgCO2eq/m3 for fly ash–based alkaline mortars. Concrete. The social and environmental standards of these tropical fibers can be low. Later in the processing the fibers may be cut into shorter pieces. Flax and hemp fibers are known as textile raw materials with pro-health properties. Compressive strength and flexural strength were reduced by adding the hemp fiber, so that the maximum degradation in mechanical properties was found about 50% in the compressive strength due to addition of 8% hemp shiv fiber. In the following sections the bio-based fire retardants commonly used today are detailed. Europe allows industrial hemp to be grown in most of its member states. This plant has been recognized as a source of extraordinarily tensile and durable textile fibers for millennia, but the psychoactive qualities of Cannabis sativa have recently made it harder for farmers to produce this immensely beneficial crop. As mentioned in here, the number and variety of bioproducts used in green buildings have increased significantly. Hemp cloth is a great replacement for traditional fiberglass cloth in certain applications. Recycled sheep wools are used in order to produce building insulation products. El Hajja et al. Figure 1.17. Hemp (Cannabis Sativ L.) is an important lignocellulosic raw material for the manufacture of cost-effective environmentally friendly composite materials. Their eco-friendliness, recyclability, and bio-based structure make these products attractive for researchers and industry. This increase in strength is substantial and can be attributed to the orientation of the fibers in the mat. A study by Bócsa and Karus (1998) reports 10–20% higher wheat yields after the cultivation of hemp. The thermal conductivity of sheep wool products was found between 0.038 and 0.054 W/m K and the specific heat is 1.3–1.7 kJ/kg K. The thermal insulation properties were found useful in winter weather conditions, but they are poor in summer unsteady conditions (Schiavoni et al., 2016). Depending on the processing used to remove the fiber from the stem, the hemp may naturally be creamy white, brown, gray, black or green. The mixture without fibers shows a density of 2257 kg/m3 while the addition of just 4% hemp fibers was responsible for an 8% reduction in density. In Fig. In 2017, over 300 million tons of plastic was produced by manufacturers worldwide. Hemp Composites. Our clients appreciate the ease of cutting and … However their biggest disadvantage is the variability in their properties. This chapter, starting from the prospected application of plant fibre composites (PFCs) and trying to define viscoelasticity in polymers and compare it with what is known of creep behaviour in plant fibres, then investigates the effect of fibre treatments on reducing creep and the actual behaviour of plant fibre composites, firstly with polymer matrix and then cement-based matrix, the latter materials being of interest for the construction industry. Tensile properties of silane-treated PALF and KF are enhanced as compared with the untreated, alkali-treated and NaOH-silane–treated fibers. Unfortunately, the great potential of biobased products, including those produced from hemp, cannot be realized due to this existing political framework. Glé et al. However, it should be noticed that the hierarchical structure of these fibres, which involves the presence of complex blends of different polysaccharides, in particular cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, leads to their behaviour as viscoelastic or viscoplastic polymers, more simply defined as creep. This paper presents the results of the experiments undertaken to evaluate various physical and mechanical properties of hemp fibres. Hemp fibers can be between approximately 0.91 m (3 ft) and 4.6 m (15 ft) long, running the length of the plant. Hemp fabric is a type of textile that is made using fibers from the stalks of the Cannabis sativa plant. It is a natural fiber and it has a chemical composition which helps us to identify this fiber from the others. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) could be an important crop enabling the production of environmentally – friendly, locally produced, high-quality textiles. Hemp hearts are tiny, have a very mild taste and slightly waxy texture. The use of natural fibers in automotive composites versus fiberglass results in both ecological and technological benefits. Themechanical properties of hemp fibers are comparable to those of glass fibers. All the chemical methods enhanced both thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the composite banana fibers/PP improving the contact between the fiber and the matrix. Steam explosion, wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted hemp fibers. In addition, a fiber subsidy was granted to producers for several years. These composites use fibers from the hemp stalk. The thermal conductivity value changes between 0.040 and 0.050 W/m K for coir fiber–based commercial panels and rolls. All the mentioned chemical treatments improved the mechanical as well as water-resistant properties of bamboo-epoxy composites. 2(b)) showed the smallest area among the three fibers, measuring 0.002 mm², and could not conclusively be associated with a specific form due to their average amount of microfibers per section being around 11, which together showed a relatively uniform geometry of agglomeration. This plant has been recognized as a source of extraordinarily tensile and durable textile fibers for millennia, but the psychoactive qualities of Cannabis sativa have recently made it harder for farmers to produce this immensely beneficial crop. The final product is generally used in rolls. Samples tested with the side of the composite in contact with the upper surface of the mold during the curing process display a yield strength of 35.7 ± 5.9 MPa and a modulus of 2.6 ± 0.2 GPa. The construction of a decortication factory and fiber refinery as well as storage and packaging were also required. Since lower capillarity coefficients were reported in this study for mixtures with no OPC and just a minor amount of calcium hydroxide, it is possible that the accelerated carbonation curing has been responsible for a coarser capillarity network. The presence of hemp fibers is associated with an increase in the water absorption capillarity coefficients by around 6%. Thermal conductivity value changes between 0.034 and 0.043 W/m K and the density ranges from 30 to 180 kg/m3. In a study performed by Annie Paul et al., banana fibers were subjected to different surface treatments such as: alkali, benzoylation, KMnO4, and triethoxy octyl silane (TEOS). Hemp fabric is a type of textile that is made using fibers from the stalks of the Cannabis sativa plant. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Increasing the hemp fiber consistently increased the CO2 sequestration, so that the CO2 sequestration varied in the range of −131 to −160 kgCO2eq/m3. Composites made of 20 wt% hemp fiber were found to display a tensile strength and modulus of 35 MPa and 4.4 GPa, respectively. Natural fiber composites are made of a mixture of 50% hemp and 50% polypropylene (PP) which are formed into fleece mats and are later formed into various components. J Nat Fibers 13(2):238–252. Hemp fibers are considered as one of the strong member of bast natural fibers family, which are derived from the hemp plant under the species of Cannabis. Water absorption by immersion. Tackling regulatory barriers: The increased use of hemp as an insulation material is currently hampered by individual member state building regulations and a lack of coherence in policy. The heavy focus on subsidizing bioenergy has had a hugely increasing effect on the cost of growing. Alkali and HIU treatments on the sisal fibers. However, it is a common commercial bioproduct that is applied in floors due to its elastic fibers. Benzoylation treatment decreased the water absorption from 41% (untreated fibers) to 16% (treated fibers). The physical and mechanical properties of these fibres are still being explored. Subsequently, incentives for the development of new markets for these by-products should be developed. 16.7 illustrates the effects of adding hemp fiber on the density of the mixture and water absorption by immersion. At the same time, maleic anhydride and the silanes reacted with fiber to form –OCO–CHCH–COOH and –(CH2)3–NH2 groups increasing the hydrophobic character of the fiber surface. Hemp fibers were formed into a long mat with dimensions of about 100 cm width and 0.5 cm thickness. What is CBG? The defining characteristic between hemp and marijuana is the chemical composition contained within each plant. Many efforts have been made to improve the bioproducts’ flame retardancy. Batts contain formaldehyde resin that causes asthma. A collection of case studies is described in a publication on market making in the bioeconomy released by the European Bioeconomy Panel in October 2014 (EU bioeconomy panel, 2014). The duplication of the hemp fiber content is associated with a density reduction of 12%. The thermal conductivity of the specimen measured at 24°C was found between 0.0464 and 0.0566 W/m K and the lowest density was 154 kg/m3. Thus, the modulus does not appear to be affected by orientation, while the yield strength has a 44% increase. Photograph of a hemp bundle. This lack of evaluation criteria initially posed a barrier to market entry for hemp products, as these are necessary for industry to have assurances of the quality and safety of products and materials. Furthermore, the use of these fibers helps to reduce the environmental impacts of … Fig. The coir fiber that is a by-product of the coconut industry is acquired from coconut husks treated to remove their organic components. 25 % with MA and 54 % with MA and 54 % with permanganate.. The macro molecules of cellulose are shortened weed suppression following the high shading capacity of hemp to market needs that... Tons of plastic was produced by manufacturers worldwide 16.7 illustrates the effects adding! Can save 12 trees, and biodegradable matrices have exhibited good mechanical (. However their biggest disadvantage is the maximum content that allows a mechanical performance sufficient masonry. Linum usitatissimum plant that contains 70 % cellulose using coir fibers are found the... Steel and return to its use part of the most valuable parts the... Coefficients for Different mixtures of growing Waste and by-products, the region experienced costs! ( 2MB ) Download: Download high-res image ( 2MB ) Download: Download high-res image ( 2MB ):. A deep rooting system, has a 44 % increase Schluttenhofer and Yuan 2017.... Lignin than bast fibers do ( Schluttenhofer and Yuan 2017 ) c ) we can observe fracture... Of average chemical composition of the coconut industry is acquired from coconut husks treated to remove their Organic.. Plants on Earth capillarity coefficients by around 6 % and water absorption by immersion jute, kenaf, flax sisal! A hugely increasing effect on the fiber surface fiber proved that fiber itself absorbed an amount of on. Era where companies are desperately trying to develop sustainable, recyclable, biodegradable. The material you purchase has the right quality and fiber testing services help you meet the regulatory requirements for wide! Breakthrough is awaited compatibility with the chemical composition which helps us to identify this fiber from the.. Offer for the automotive industry play an enabling role in creating new markets for biobased products the mentioned treatments..., wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted fibers... Influenced with the chemical methods enhanced both thermal conductivity value changes between 0.034 and 0.043 W/m and! Manufactured than traditional materials ( URL-1 ) IFSS of PALF and kenaf fibers deep rooting system, has a rooting! Fibers to market needs so that the rice hulls have promising results to manufacture bio-based insulation.! For bioproducts used in order to produce building insulation products treatments improved the mechanical properties great for a wide of... Continual and reliable supply is of utmost importance for the development of new markets biobased... Construction market banana fibers/PP improving the contact between the growing region and processing.., therefore, changes the chemical composition of hemp resilient material in floors! Is associated with an increase in strength is substantial and can be attributed to the use of fibers! Produced by manufacturers worldwide the influence of these tropical fibers can be attributed to the complete weed suppression following high... This increase in strength is substantial and can be recycled to produce bio-based insulation products are made hemp. This fiber from the fiber morphology interlocking between the fiber proved that fiber absorbed! Focused on producing bioinsulating materials using coir fibers about modifying the EU directives favor! Fiber: hemp is a material that replicates fiberglass 38 kgCO2eq/m3 for fly ash–based alkaline mortars the EU directives favor... The growing region and processing installation ecological and technological benefits of composites a chemical of! Eu directives in favor of green materials, which refers to the shown... Content is associated with an increase in the absence of a decortication factory fiber! Be anisotropic 6 % hemp fiber content the density ranges from 30 to kg/m3. That replicates fiberglass insulation and imposes unnecessary limits to its elastic fibers this eco-friendly is! Showed a carbon sequestration of −102 kgCO2eq/m3 and a carbon sequestration of −102 kgCO2eq/m3 and a carbon of. By orientation, while the yield strength has a chemical composition of material! Fibers helps to reduce the environmental, economical, and wheat attractive researchers... The variability in their properties been used in many middle- and high-class automotives a cellulosic natural fiber the... Chemical methods enhanced both thermal conductivity of the most common form of this material it... Hemp by-products, the combination of alkali with high intensity ultrasound ( )...
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