During the development of pharmaceutical formulations various production mediums and process variables related to the productivity, safety and usefulness should be optimized. 82, 379–385. RSM has often been applied to optimize the formulation variables and optimization of fermentation process (Houck et al., 1995; Franco-Lara et al., 2006). Unlike PBD, it analyses the main effect and two factor interactions. Nowadays it is widely used in response surface methodology (RSM) for building a second order (quadratic) model for the response variable without using a complete three-level factorial experiment. Process Biochem. Med. Also, the advantages and disadvantages associated with the above methods along with the future directions in the fermentation media design and optimization have been discussed in detail. Many studies claim substantial improvements over media obtained using OFAT techniques by using DOE methods. Key Process Optimization Posts. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.135, Gonzalez, R., Islas, L., Obregon, A.-M., Escalante, L., and Sanchez, S. (1995). 46, 139–144. Optimization of the operational procedures in bioprocessing can either concern state variables that should be kept under control at a predetermined set‐point or that should follow the course of a preset trajectory, or discrete sequential actions. A Genetic Algorithm for Function Optimization: A Matlab Implementation. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2007.01.004, Marwick, J. D., Wright, P. C., and Burgess, J. G. (1999). Medium optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of eucalyptene A and xyloketal A from Xylaria sp. 63, 442–459. The Taguchi method becomes very helpful in measuring the quality by the deviation of a functional characteristic from its target value. Later, the fermentor is cleaned and reused for the next batch. Antimicrob. process, it is time to see how a general biotechnology fermentat. Khan, M., and Tripathi, C. K. M. (2011). Fermentation Basics Fermentation is the term used by microbiologists to describe any process for the production of a product by means of the mass culture of a microorganism. Systems biology of antibiotic production by microorganisms. In addition to the rate of assimilation of carbon sources, the nature of carbon source also affects the type and amount of the product. Biotechnol. Experimental error is estimated by calculating the variance among the dummy variables as follows: Veff = ∑(Ed2)/n; where Veff = variance of the concentration effect, Ed = effect for dummy variable and n = number of dummy variables. Biotechnol. 22, 939–946. Detailed knowledge of metabolic flux and its regulation could be helpful to design a medium or the performance of mathematical models with greater accuracy. (2008, 2010) employed the statistical optimization to enhance the performance of biotransformation of colchicine into its pharmacologically active derivative 3-demethylated colchicine (3-DMC) through various microbial sources including recombinant E. coli under immobilized/non-immobilized condition (Dubey et al., 2008, 2010). Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc. Muhammad, S. A., Ahmed, S., Ismail, T., and Hameed, A. lactis using response surface methodology (RSM) combined with artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). The GA follows mainly three types of rules at each step to create the next generation from the current population: Selection rule selects the individuals, known as parents that contribute to the population of the next generation. Cooling Jacket: Large-scale industrial fermentors are almost always constructed of stainless steel. Unsupervised (Self-organization) in which output unit is trained to respond against clusters of pattern within the input. A trained mathematical model serves as a fitness function in the determination of optimum concentration of the medium components using GA. GA mimics the process of mutation and is based upon the principle “survival of the fittest”. These optimization techniques can also be employed in the improvement of performance of other microbial processes, like, biotransformation, fed batch fermentation, etc. As PBD considers only main effects and ignores the interactions among the factors, therefore, a new design is required. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2007.07.011, Fisher, R. A. doi: 10.1016/j.ejbt.2014.04.010, Zhu, C.-H., Lu, F.-P., He, Y.-N., Zhang, J.-K., and Du, L.-X. The designs and methods discussed in this review have been analyzed on the basis of efficiency, simplicity and time consumption, and their applications have been suggested accordingly. Central composite design (CCD) was first described by Box and Wilson (1951). Fermentation technology is widely used for the production of various economically important compounds which have applications in the energy production, pharmaceutical, chemical and food industry. The numbers of star points are double the number of factors used in the design. Hence, not only the cost even the dynamics of the carbon source must be considered whether it plays a role as a substrate in fermentation process or not. Leucine interference in the production of water-soluble red Monascus pigments. Osama, K., Somvanshi, P., Pandey, A. K., and Mishra, B. N. (2013). Reinforcement where learning may be considered as an intermediate form of the above two classes of learning. of India) Project on - Creation of e-Contents on Fermentation Technology Project control No: RE-02091011297, Christ College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India One Factor At-A-Time It is also a close-ended system for medium optimization process. are tested. Fermentation is controlled by regulating the temperature, the oxygen content and the pitch rate; but the temperature plays a dominant role in the optimization of the fermentation process. (Dubey et al., 2008, 2011; Singh et al., 2009; Rajeswari et al., 2014). Fermentation technology is widely used for the production of various economically important compounds which have applications in the energy production, pharmaceutical, chemical and food industry. Uncontrolled variables (noises) generally cause the loss of the quality. Microbiol. 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