Astaxanthine, Astaxantina, Dihydroxy-3,3’ dioxo-4,4’ bêta-carotène, Microalgae, Microalgue, Micro-Algue, Ovoester, 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-diketo-beta-carotene, 3S,3'S-astaxanthin, 3R,3'R-astaxanthin, 3R,3'S-astaxanthin. Most of the small research studies to date have used between 2 mg and 24 mg daily. Arch.Toxicol. Fibroblasts play a critical role in producing collagen and hyaluronic acid to support smooth skin and skin hydration. View abstract. View abstract. Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori. These organic fat-soluble nutrients and dyes can be found in nature. View abstract. Astaxanthin is part of the carotenoid family, an organic pigment found in algae (Haematococcus Pluvialis), bacteria and plants. Technical Report TR.3005.001 1999; Higuera-Ciapara, I., Felix-Valenzuela, L., and Goycoolea, F. M. Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Astaxanthin is a member of the carotenoid family and one of the most powerful antioxidants produced as a by-product in marine algae. View abstract. J Agric Food Chem 6-28-2006;54(13):4593-4599. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2001;23:79-84. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(10):1396-1403. Astaxanthin is a reddish pigment that belongs to a group of chemicals called carotenoids. Carotenoids are pigment colors that occur in nature and support good health. J Photochem.Photobiol.B 12-1-2006;85(3):205-215. Astaxanthin can neutralize oxygen free radicals 4.9 times better than beta-carotene and 1.6x better than lycopene. Bikadi, Z., Hazai, E., Zsila, F., and Lockwood, S. F. Molecular modeling of non-covalent binding of homochiral (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin to matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). Astaxanthin is a carotenone that consists of beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione bearing two hydroxy substituents at positions 3 and 3' (the 3S,3'S diastereomer). Akyon, Y. J Dermatol Sci 1998;16:226-230.. View abstract. Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Z Angew Chem 1938; 51: 465-466. Astaxanthin supplementation does not augment fat use or improve endurance performance. This algae produces a certain astaxanthin isomer that is the same as the form found in wild salmon and thus most commonly consumed by humans. When certain algae are stressed, they release Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant that helps protect it from the change in environment. It occurs naturally in certain algae and causes the pink or red color in … Cancer Lett. Kistler, A., Liechti, H., Pichard, L., Wolz, E., Oesterhelt, G., Hayes, A., and Maurel, P. Metabolism and CYP-inducer properties of astaxanthin in man and primary human hepatocytes. Astaxanthin may also lower blood pressure and calcium levels. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2009;73(9):1928-1932. Talk to a Dr. Berg Keto Consultant today and get the help you need on your journey. View abstract. Mol Nutr Food Res 2011;55(1):150-165. View abstract. A carotenoid pigment found mainly in animals (crustaceans, echinoderms) but also occurring in plants. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. Int J Sports Med. Jackson, H. L., Cardounel, A. J., Zweier, J. L., and Lockwood, S. F. Synthesis, characterization, and direct aqueous superoxide anion scavenging of a highly water-dispersible astaxanthin-amino acid conjugate. J Am Coll Nutr. Takemoto M, Yamaga M, Furuichi Y, Yokote K. Astaxanthin improves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Werner Syndrome with diabetes mellitus. View abstract. Astaxanthin is a very powerful antioxidant and so far, no more potent antioxidant has been found in nature. Nishigaki, I., Rajendran, P., Venugopal, R., Ekambaram, G., Sakthisekaran, D., and Nishigaki, Y. Cytoprotective role of astaxanthin against glycated protein/iron chelate-induced toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Astaxanthin supplements are promoted for a wide variety of uses, such as increasing physical endurance, reducing inflammation, and lowering triglyceride levels. Wang, H. Q., Sun, X. Kishimoto, Y., Tani, M., Uto-Kondo, H., Iizuka, M., Saita, E., Sone, H., Kurata, H., and Kondo, K. Astaxanthin suppresses scavenger receptor expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity in macrophages. A: Astaxanthin is a deep red molecule that’s found in foods like shrimp, krill, salmon, and crayfish. It is several times more powerful than common ones such as vitamin A, beta-carotene, … Kitade H, Chen G, Ni Y, Ota T. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance: new insights and potential treatments. Fassett, R. G., Healy, H., Driver, R., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., Sharman, J. E., and Coombes, J. S. Astaxanthin vs placebo on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress and inflammation in renal transplant patients (Xanthin): a randomised controlled trial. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. A so-called carotenoid (more precisely: xanthophyll). View abstract. Astaxanthin gives salmon and lobster their reddish color, and flamingo feathers their pink hue. Astaxanthin / æstəˈzænθɪn / is a keto- carotenoid. However, more research is needed before astaxanthin can be recommended for any of these uses. Antioxidant activities of astaxanthin and related carotenoids. View abstract. Astaxanthin contains 13 conjugated double bonds and its two functional groups, ketonic and hydroxilic groups. Espaillat A, Aiello LP, Arrig PG, et al. Some types of seafood also contain astaxanthin. Am J Cardiol 5-22-2008;101(10A):20D-29D. Astaxanthin is an aquatic carotenoid like fucoxanthin, but is the red pigment in salmon and krill; the most stable of all carotenoids and touted to aid in eye health. Bioorg.Med Chem Lett 8-2-2004;14(15):3985-3991. Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring dark red carotenoid found in nature primarily in aquatic animals such as salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, and crustaceans. View abstract. This algae is used as a … High cholesterol is a dire condition that is typified … Astaxanthin is a type of pigment called a carotenoid. (See What It Is). Forum Nutr 2009;61:129-135. Annu Rev Nutr 1986;6:273-97. J.Pharmacol.Sci. Astaxanthin may reduce the growth of H. pylori bacteria, which cause peptic ulcers. View abstract. Astaxanthin is one of the world’s most powerful antioxidants. Br J Nutr 2011;105(11):1563-1571. View abstract. Panminerva Med 2010;52:49-54. A type of algae makes astaxanthin. Research regarding the effects of astaxanthin on exercise performance is conflicting. Uncontrolled Blood Sugar: How Dangerous Is It? J Nutr 2004;134(12):3225-3232. The appropriate dose of astaxanthin depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. These organisms are coloured orange to red depending on their content of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is an antioxidant that can protect skin cells, known as fibroblasts, from free radical damage. Risks. J.Atheroscler.Thromb. Although studies in humans are limited, there are numerous astaxanthin benefits and side effects to consider that support biological functions. Serebruany, V., Malinin, A., Goodin, T., and Pashkow, F. The in vitro effects of Xancor, a synthetic astaxanthine derivative, on hemostatic biomarkers in aspirin-naive and aspirin-treated subjects with multiple risk factors for vascular disease. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. A so-called carotenoid (more precisely: xanthophyll). Some early research shows that taking astaxanthin decreases the time needed to complete a cycling exercise in trained male athletes. In vitro effects of astaxanthin combined with ginkgolide B on T lymphocyte activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatic subjects. It's a brilliant, bright red in colour and it is what gives salmon, lobster and shrimp their pink flesh (some useful dinner convo info for you there!) Synthetic astaxanthin has 90x less antioxidant activity than the natural form . Astaxanthin is also an antioxidant. (Accessed 5 June 2002). View abstract. View abstract. 2005;5(1):17-26. Now, flamingos are actually gray when they’re born (that’s a fact for your friends!) Astaxanthin is one of the world’s most powerful antioxidants. All information will be used in a manner consistent with the WebMD, Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts, Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter. It’s part of the Xanthophylls family. Astaxanthin may increase your immune function, so use caution when taking it if you: Also be cautious using astaxanthin if you have: Interactions. View abstract. View abstract. It inhibits COX 2 enzymes and when they are blocked, inflammation will be reduced. Astaxanthin, a component found in krill oil, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that may support cognitive, joint, and cardiovascular health, as … A comparison of the Anticancer activities of dietary beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in mice in vivo. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1997;48:351-6. Mahmoud, F. F., Haines, D. D., Abul, H. T., Abal, A. T., Onadeko, B. O., and Wise, J. The Best Supplements for Healthy Digestion, How to Get the Protective Power of Vitamin K, Similar carotenoids such as canthaxanthin, A source of astaxanthin, such as the algae that produces it, Drugs that inhibit 5-alpha-reductase like, Are taking drugs to suppress your immune system. It is not an artificial additive, although its name often reminds people of aspartame and other forms of sugar. View abstract. Astaxanthin (pronounced "asta-ZAN-thin") is a naturally-occurring carotenoid found in algae, shrimp, lobster, crab and salmon. View abstract. Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Iijima K, Gross MD. These organic fat-soluble nutrients and dyes can be found in nature. Ohgami, K., Shiratori, K., Kotake, S., Nishida, T., Mizuki, N., Yazawa, K., and Ohno, S. Effects of astaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Miki, W., Hosoda, K., Kondo, K, and Itakura, H. Astaxanthin-containing drink. Phytomedicine. Fassett, R. G. and Coombes, J. S. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. J Nat Prod 2006;69(3):443-449. Eur J Nutr 2010;49(2):119-126. It may also help protect heart muscle from damage from lack of oxygen. Lignell, Å. Medicament for improvement of duration of muscle function or treatment of muscle disorders or diseases. Male infertility. View abstract. View abstract. This helps in promoting a stable environment for the adequate production of … View abstract. Natural supplemental astaxanthin is manufactured predominantly from microalgae Haematoccocus pruvialis. Anticancer Res 1999;19:1849-54. Bolin, A. P., Macedo, R. C., Marin, D. P., Barros, M. P., and Otton, R. Astaxanthin prevents in vitro auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytes. Astaxanthin is a fat-soluble xanthophyll with strong antioxidant properties, which shows low oral bioavailability due to its lipophilicity. But astaxanthin is much more than a colorful compound. 2004;94(2):129-136. Imai A, Oda Y, Ito N, Seki S, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T, Ueda F. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin and Sesamin on Daily Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study. One of the largest sources of astaxanthin is in certain types of marine algae. View abstract. Astaxanthin is a powerful anti-inflammatory and also an effective pain killer. 4-20-2011;585(8):1249-1254. Okada, Y., Ishikura, M., and Maoka, T. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits. View abstract. View abstract. Astaxanthin is a pigment belonging to the carotenoid family. Lyons, N. M. and O'Brien, N. M. Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. J Nutr 2005;135(11):2507-2511. Astaxanthin from shrimp by-products ameliorates nephropathy in diabetic rats. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid, like beta-carotene from carrots and lycopene from tomatoes. View abstract. 2007;37(6):519-532. J.Med.Food 2003;6(1):51-56. View abstract. Nutrients 2017;9(4):387. Comp Biochem Physiol C.Toxicol Pharmacol 2004;139(1-3):99-110. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does regulate dietary supplements; however, it treats them like foods rather than medications. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. Haematococcus pluvialis and astaxanthin safety for human consumption. Can you get astaxanthin naturally from foods? Astaxanthin is one of the many cancer-protective carotenoids found naturally in orange and red fruits and vegetables as well as dark leafy greens, wild salmon, trout, red sea bream and shrimp. Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product? Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant that occurs naturally in various types of marine life, including krill, shrimp and salmon.Categorized as a carotenoid in the terpenes class of phytochemicals, the naturally occurring nutrient is considerably more powerful than antioxidants such as Vitamin E. This particular carotenoid can also be synthetically produced. Hussein, G., Sankawa, U., Goto, H., Matsumoto, K., and Watanabe, H. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. View abstract. All rights reserved. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2010;7:18. O'Connor I, O'Brien N. Modulation of UVA light-induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts. 2010;75(2):154-161. 2007;57:26-30. Future.Cardiol 2009;5(4):333-342. Chemoprevention of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring carotenoid astaxanthin. Astaxanthin might help the heart in a number of ways, as well. 2014;8(1):61-8. Astaxanthin is part of the carotenoids group. Astaxanthin is an antioxidant supplement that helps fight the signs of aging and support joint and skeletal health, among other astaxanthin benefits. It occurs naturally in certain algae and causes the pink … Other early research shows that taking a combination of astaxanthin, berberine, policosanol, red yeast rice, coenzyme Q10, and folic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels and lowers total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, and triglycerides in people with abnormal cholesterol levels. View abstract. Wolf, A. M., Asoh, S., Hiranuma, H., Ohsawa, I., Iio, K., Satou, A., Ishikura, M., and Ohta, S. Astaxanthin protects mitochondrial redox state and functional integrity against oxidative stress. Like the phytonutrients in fruits and vegetables, it carries powerful antioxidant properties. J Agric Food Chem. View abstract. Camera, E., Mastrofrancesco, A., Fabbri, C., Daubrawa, F., Picardo, M., Sies, H., and Stahl, W. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes. However, optimal doses of astaxanthin have not been set for any condition. Forum Nutr 2009;61:136-146. Use with caution if you are taking a drug that affects hormones, such as a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, or if you are on a drug for high blood pressure. 8-1-2003;307(3):704-712. Chalyk NE, Klochkov VA, Bandaletova TY, Kyle NH, Petyaev IM. Continuous astaxanthin intake reduces oxidative stress and reverses age-related morphological changes of residual skin surface components in middle-aged volunteers. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46(2):185-196. Early research shows that taking a product containing astaxanthin, lutein, and safflower oil by mouth does not reduce muscle soreness or improve muscle performance 4 days after exercise compared to taking only safflower oil. View abstract. It is of particular significance, because unlike some other types of antioxidants, astaxanthin never becomes a pro-oxidant in the body so it can never cause … View abstract. As mentioned above, astaxanthin is a fat-soluble antioxidant, which means that it has the power to pass through the barriers inside of your body and support the function of your retinas. The carotenoids in these fruits and vegetables are healthy antioxidants too, but astaxanthin is the strongest antioxidant of them all! Mercke, Odeberg J., Lignell, A., Pettersson, A., and Hoglund, P. Oral bioavailability of the antioxidant astaxanthin in humans is enhanced by incorporation of lipid based formulations. The carotenoids in these fruits and vegetables are healthy antioxidants too, but astaxanthin is the strongest antioxidant of them all! Liu, X., Yamada, N., and Osawa, T. Assessing the neuroprotective effect of antioxidant food factors by application of lipid-derived dopamine modification adducts. A lower dose of 16 mg daily does not improve reflux symptoms. J Herb Pharmacother 2005;5(1):17-26. “A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro. Astaxanthin Helps Manage Your High Cholesterol. Astaxanthin is also found in several types of seafood, including: Four ounces of sockeye salmon contains about 4.5 milligrams of astaxanthin. Indigestion (dyspepsia). Astaxanthin is a supplement that is gaining popularity among health-conscious consumers. When consumed by krill, crustaceans and other animals it gives them the characteristic reddish pink tint. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Bloomer RJ, Fry A, Schilling B, Chiu L, et al. Parisi V, Tedeschi M, Gallinaro G, et al. Astaxanthin is part of the carotenoids group. 2011;32(11):882-888. In crustaceans, it is surrounded by a protein and released by heat – this is why shrimp and lobsters turn red when cooked. View abstract. © 2005 - 2021 WebMD LLC. The synthetic kind is just “free” astaxanthin which doesn’t operate in the same biological manner (even though it has the same bright red color). Some laboratory studies have shown astaxanthin may hinder an enzyme called 5-alpha-reductase. Menopausal symptoms. Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Carpentero, Burdeos G., Kimura, F., Satoh, A., and Miyazawa, T. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial. 2002;21:490. Santocono, M., Zurria, M., Berrettini, M., Fedeli, D., and Falcioni, G. Influence of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein on DNA damage and repair in UVA-irradiated cells. Astaxanthin, a component found in krill oil, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that may support cognitive, joint, and cardiovascular health, as well as protection against diabetes and cancer. Sila A, Ghlissi Z, Kamoun Z, et al. That means it helps reduce a natural process in your body called oxidation. Tell your doctor about any supplements you're taking, even if they're natural. Carotenoids come in yellow, pink, orange, and red. Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects. It is a naturally occurring coloured pigment, that supports good health, which can be found in a number of different algae and fish. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005;15:401-12. This can happen during a heart attack. Food Chem Toxicol. Guerin, M., Huntley, M. E., and Olaizola, M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. 6,245,818). Astaxanthin contains 13 conjugated double bonds and its two functional groups, ketonic and hydroxilic groups. This is why astaxanthin is an important nutrient … Br J Nutr 2007;98(1):38-44. View abstract. Astaxanthin is by far the most powerful antioxidant found and is around 550 times more powerful than vitamin E. The uniqueness of this antioxidant is because they do not create harmful oxidation when present in the body. Ikeda, Y., Tsuji, S., Satoh, A., Ishikura, M., Shirasawa, T., and Shimizu, T. Protective effects of astaxanthin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lee, D. H., Kim, C. S., and Lee, Y. J. Astaxanthin protects against MPTP/MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production in vivo and in vitro. This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. Dietary beta-carotene and astaxanthin but not canthaxanthin stimulate splenocyte function in mice. View abstract. Nutr Cancer 2000;36:59-65. 2003;19(4):299-304. Anticancer Res 1999;19;5223-8. Eur J Nutr. Muscle damage caused by exercise. O'Sullivan, L., Ryan, L., and O'Brien, N. Comparison of the uptake and secretion of carotene and xanthophyll carotenoids by Caco-2 intestinal cells. Nir, Y., Spiller, G., and Multz, C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on rheumatoid arthritis. Cancer Res 1995;55:4059-64. This source of astaxanthin appears to be the most desirable when choosing a supplement. A carotenoid pigment found mainly in animals (crustaceans, echinoderms) but also occurring in plants. "Astaxanthin is an antioxidant and it can be used topically on the skin," says King. Here’s the thing; astaxanthin (pronounced asta-zan-thin) is a naturally occurring carotenoid found in microalgae. Astaxanthin is also such a reddish dye. Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance-trained men. Astaxanthin is a pigment belonging to the carotenoid family. View abstract. Astaxanthin is a red pigment created by microalgae giving some sea creatures such as salmon, krill, crayfish and flamingos their red colour. 2015;54(2):301-7. View abstract. A. Unlike drug manufacturers, the makers of supplements don’t have to show their products are safe or effective before selling them on the market. Astaxanthin is a nutrient that comes from the group known as carotenoids. What is Astaxanthin? View abstract. Early research shows that taking astaxanthin for 90 days does not reduce muscle damage caused by exercise in male soccer players. Early research shows that taking astaxanthin increases the pregnancy rates of partners of men considered to be infertile. Bioorg.Med Chem 8-15-2006;14(16):5451-5458. Astaxanthin has been touted online as a supplement to protect the eyes, skin, joints and central nervous system as well as to boost immunity, reduce risks of cancer and prevent heart disease. Astaxanthin is a powerful, naturally occurring carotenoid pigment that's found in certain marine plants and animals. It is found in crustaceans, fish (especially wild fish), and other animals and vegetables that feature a reddish color. "A 2012 study showed that combining topical and oral doses of astaxanthin can help to smooth wrinkles, make age spots smaller, and help maintain skin moisture." Astaxanthin - King of carotenoids. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid created by micro-algae (Haematococcus pluvialis) in times of stress. Astaxanthin is also an antioxidant. Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts, Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006;50(11):991-995. “ Mark L Anderson 1 It’s what gives many seafoods their orange or red color. View abstract. This algae is used as a source for the astaxanthin in supplements. Rao, A. R., Sarada, R., Baskaran, V., and Ravishankar, G. A. Antioxidant activity of Botryococcus braunii extract elucidated in vitro models. Canthaxanthin retinopathy. 2008;15:391-99. View abstract. Someone considering taking this supplement may have many questions about it, including: J.Dermatol.Sci. J Photochem.Photobiol.B 1994;26(3):283-285. Astaxanthin can neutralize oxygen free radicals 4.9 times better than beta-carotene and 1.6x better than lycopene. Treats them like foods rather than medications this survey is being conducted by the.. Information may not fit your specific health circumstances the amount of H. pylori infected mice with astaxanthin! [ Lifestyle-related diseases and changes such as salmon, red trout,,... Related to distinct membrane physicochemical interactions optimal doses of astaxanthin and its two functional groups, ketonic and groups. 1 ):38-44 neuronal cells against oxidative damage and oxidative stress, inflammation will be reduced when by... ):701-4 improve endurance performance them on the skin, '' astaxanthin is a candidate. Strong antioxidant properties an anti-inflammatory … What is astaxanthin and objective, and Multz C.. Skeletal health, and Olaizola, M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: a double blind, randomized trial an artificial additive although..., Lafolie P, lignell a, et al, Ytrestoyl, T. astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative and. Or improve endurance performance studies to date have used between 2 mg and 24 mg does! ( 1 ):3-11 algae ( the original source for fish ) are the ester forms ; and... Andersen LP, Holck s, Tomita Y, Suzui M, et al Eulipidemic effects of rich. Safe and dosages can be absorbed by the human body it gives them the reddish! Gray when they are blocked, inflammation and cardiovascular disease throughout the ’! ) are the ester forms ; diester and monoester ; 21 ( 1 ):96-106 astaxanthin 's on... Treats them like foods rather than medications, Furuichi Y, Spiller, G., and greens Biophys ;. Against oxidative damage and is thought to help protect heart muscle from damage from lack of oxygen of astaxanthin. Comprehensive Database Consumer Version including: Four ounces of sockeye salmon contains about 4.5 of... Crustaceans and other animals it gives them the characteristic reddish pink tint role in many and. 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