Meredith McCoy: Thank you for that. Hasan K. Jeffries: It really does force you to think about the institution of slavery itself as dynamic and not in a celebratory way of course, but dynamic in the sense of it is adjusting, it is changing, it is adapting in this never-ending search for free labor. Hasan K. Jeffries: I think we have to keep at the forefront of our mind when trying to understand the difficult decisions that native people are making. But what these things have in common, even though they’re coming out of these very different colonial contexts, is that Native societies are reaching a saturation point where there are settler colonial societies. The mission system can be really repressive. The Yamasees become very much in debt to these traders. Such disregard is glaring in many mainstream stories of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Actually, 200 of them died on the voyage, which was overcrowded, many people were ill, but of the survivors, he sold them in Spain. Their resources are still very much under siege, as we can see today. In order to sever that connection, they execute probably about 90 traders, which is most of the British traders who are in the interior. Meredith McCoy: It is just devastating to sit with those statistics, to think about the loss of life and the bringing of instability into communities that previously had used these ideas about captivity and bondage in some contexts as a way to restore and maintain a social fabric. Teaching Tolerance provides free resources to educators—teachers, administrators, counselors and other practitioners—who work with children from kindergarten through high school. Build a Learning Plan. It really devastates the Florida mission system. I’m Hasan Kwame Jeffries and this is Teaching Hard History: American Slavery, a special series from Teaching Tolerance, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. They really push deeply into the Mississippi Valley, eventually into Louisiana. In the West, the major colonizing power are the Spanish. Teaching Tolerance: Lessons Learned in Teaching Native American History: Indian Law Resource Center: Native American Rights Fund: For Librarians (AND Teachers) Creating a Library Atmosphere that Welcomes American Indians: Board Books: Top Books for Elementary: Top Books for High School: The Yamasee War destroys the plantation economy of the Carolina back country. Telling stories that come to life . Meredith McCoy: Yeah, that’s absolutely right. Teaching Tolerance Classroom Activities from Tolerance.org Many excellent activities for a variety of subjects and lesson plans. We’re going to talk about contemporary impacts that have ripples over time of the Indigenous slave trade for Indigenous peoples today. Teaching Tolerance Classroom Activities from Tolerance.org Many excellent activities for a variety of subjects and lesson plans. From the Indigenous peoples whose lands it decided to set up on. But they did have already some African slaves in their nation and they were familiar with Spanish exploits just by reading. It’s something that is particularly important to understand in our context because it is the form that colonialism took on the east coast of North America and eventually the form that became dominant across the United States. This podcast is a resource for navigating those challenges so teachers and students can develop a deeper understanding of the history and legacy of American slavery. “It’s like a diamond,” Schenck says of this and other varying Native American views of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Meredith, how are you? Before the 1970s, historians tended to depict slavery as something that happened exclusively in the antebellum South, focusing on African Americans. So this ripples out into understandings of enslavement and indigenous enslavement, but it also affects everything else about how we think about Indigenous rights within the settler state that is currently the United States. Lewis & Clark: A Native American View Grade 8 Lewis & Clark: A Native American View 6 Options/extensions • Have students read the article from Teaching Tolerance magazine (Olson, 2006) (a link is provided in the “Resources” section), and submit a reflection on the underrepresentation of the Native American voice in We see that in the 1820s and 1830s when the Supreme Court’s dealing with a set of cases that comes to be known as the Marshall Trilogy. Indiana Native American Heritage Month (November) American Indians in … Where is it that you chose to begin this discussion? Meredith McCoy: How effective is the Yamasee War at ending indigenous enslavement, both along the Eastern Seaboard and then continent wide pushing into the West? How do we understand the role of Columbus in a history of enslavement of Indigenous peoples? Teaching Tolerance Professional Development. These were fascinating conversations. Doctor Snyder is the 2018 winner of the Francis Parkman prize from the Society of American Historians. So they rightly see that these are military really strong people and that maybe they would make good military allies. Of course, you can see that with Columbus, but as early as the 1520s, Spanish ships started terrorizing Indigenous communities on the Atlantic Seaboard and in Florida. Teaching Tolerance provides free teaching materials that include over 100 texts, sample inquiries and a detailed K–12 framework for teaching the history of American slavery. Teaching Tolerance: How State Standards Represent Indigenous Peoples Instructional Content. Christina Snyder: So “settler colonialism” is a term that teachers may have encountered and certainly it’s something that we as scholars talk about a lot. So these events, especially in the early colonial period, they don’t necessarily translate from one colonial context to the next. It was really about addressing a balance that had been lost through a relative who had been killed. Teaching Culturally Sensitive Holidays – Sherry Posnick-Goodwin (California Teachers Associations) Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way – Teaching Tolerance; Teaching Thanksgiving from the Perspective of Native Americans – Christina “Krea” Gomez ; Lesson Plans/ Study Guides. Teaching the Truth About Native American History. If we don’t understand that relationship, I don’t think our students will understand the impact that slavery and these colonies will have on Indigenous people going forward. Teaching Tolerance Five lesson ideas from Education World. Use these resources to help students contextualize the true history and contemporary issues of Native peoples. One helps us to understand the other. The ideas that they have about people who can justly be enslaved are based on a few different criteria. We do have an estimate from one French colonial official in Louisiana, around 1700, who estimated that for every captive taken alive, three people died resisting that invasion. So Europeans have this idea that slavery can be passed down indefinitely through, especially the maternal line, is how they begin to define it. When he was marketing them to potential buyers, he actually compared them to West Africans. While many Native people are bought, sold and live their lives on South Carolina plantations, many more are actually deported and exported for sale on the global market. They are trying to protect. Meredith McCoy: We continue today to feel the impacts of Indigenous enslavement in so many ways. So it’s a form of colonialism that imagines Native people as being absent, disappearing, as having no role in the future of their society. I think the best metaphor probably is to think about as a kind of virus that mutates as it migrates. I want to return to the Yamasee War for a moment. “We should know … So basically the idea of someone who has not been incorporated into a kinship network, that person is permanently an outsider and they’re thought of as being kinless. But as a result of that, we have this sort of “If we can enslave you, we will enslave you” system or attitude going on. So some of the kinds of diplomatic rituals that Native people had been conducting for a long time, they extended those to European newcomers as the new people on the block. So they were removing Indigenous peoples from the Americas and sending them out to the Caribbean, Europe and as far away as Asia. That really reshapes the way that slavery looks in the region. I’m so excited to be part of this project and bringing this very hard history in an accessible way to our teachers. They could also be a symbol of prestige and power or part of the expansion of a chief’s social network. Just what I mean by that is that it can be passed from a parent to a child. We know, for example, that John Smith, who’s famous in terms of his interactions with Jamestown and Pocahontas, he had read quite a bit of the Spanish literature and had also been a mercenary. You're encouraged to search its portal for more. So a successful war party would take home captives and the captives as a whole would really face different fates. They execute Nairne, they begin to attack plantations around South Carolina, and many other Southern Indian nations applaud this. Broken Promises: Continuing Federal Funding Shortfall for Native Americans U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2018 Honoring Our Teachers 2017 Monograph Full Text Arizona State Indian Education Report 2014-2019 Rewriting History--for the Better David Constantin, Teaching Tolerance, Fall 2015 They also have an anti-black bias against sub-Saharan Africans during this time. Millions of Indigenous people lived in North America before European colonial powers invaded. Christina Snyder: One thing that we have to understand first is that Native North America is incredibly diverse on the eve of colonization. for Educators and Families. Meredith McCoy: So there is a mutual displacement of peoples being taken across the ocean. The lesson introduces students to two texts written by Native American authors that offer a different perspective on the Thanksgiving story than … Meredith McCoy: I’m Doctor Meredith McCoy, Assistant Professor of American Studies and History at Carleton College. Teaching Tolerance has a broad set of resources, toolkits, and professional development that can support corps members and alumni interested in advancing safe classrooms. Throughout the colonial period, firearms are a very popular trade item, second only to textiles. As part of that, there are these germs of ideas about race that are articulated during the Reconquest and the Spanish referred to these as notions of “blood purity.” That is that Christians had this pure blood and Jews and Muslims did not. That trade continues in much diminished fashion, but it’s never the same after that. So Native people become consumers in this global market. We’re going to continue this conversation in our next episode, starting with some insightful perspectives on the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation. Meredith will be joining me for this season of Teaching Hard History: American Slavery. European gun manufacturers actually start to mass-produce these for an American market and primarily for Native American people who want to use these. A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center ©1991-2020. You can also find these online @tolerance.org\hardhistory. Sarah mentioned that these kinds of activities are really useful and important for students because it helps them see the conflict as not just an isolated event. So there are lots of examples, especially in the early colonial period, of these colonizers taking and selling, were deporting Indigenous slaves. It’s really colonialism that creates the Atlantic slave trade. Meredith McCoy: Absolutely. It’s interesting because even though in many cases European colonizers are really using this brute force to invade Native villages to take captives, they actually wanted to have this legal foundation that would make their conquest legitimate, at least in the eyes of fellow European colonizers. What this history forces us to do is reckon with the myriad experiences depending on location and time. Its goal is Christianization and cultural assimilation and yet the Spanish do provide a measure of protection. Twenty million, 95% of the indigenous population, died - many from the smallpox infection to which natives had no immunity. Early on, when we think about the very first encounters between the Spanish and Indigenous people, the Spanish had an impressive array of technology that was also quite terrifying. Native Americans of New England: Key Concepts For Teaching Native American Histories Websites The Southwest—what you see is the Pueblo Revolt. So it’s not just diseases. Native people are still being marginalized. There is also a kind of prestige and power in having these captives. So that reorients how we think about the triangle trade, how we think about the Atlantic slave trade, because it adds this countercurrent to the normal cycle that we look at when we have these maps and diagrams in our history textbooks. Could you explicitly define that for some of our teachers who may see that term pop up in their textbook or in their standards? Meredith McCoy: Thanks to Doctor Snyder for sharing her insights with us. So over time, as Europeans become more financially and ideologically invested in slavery, they develop laws to protect slaveholders and to enforce that trans-generational enslavement of Africans and Indians. Where was it going to get those resources? All of these people, they had quite different cultures, histories and politics. Apple Podcasts | Google Music | Spotify | RSS | Help, Christina Snyder Which is what we typically think of as the prototypical form of slavery that is the kind that was practiced in the South and the Caribbean in the 18th and 19th centuries. In that sense it’s taking a life and transforming it. And Great Crossings: Indian, Settlers, and Slaves in the Age of Jackson. Many of them also join attacks against South Carolina plantations. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: The Indians’ Discovery of Columbus Interactives. At the same time that they were then bringing African laborers to the Americas so that they could increase their profits and develop this global capitalism. If you don't have an account, I am the Blood of the Conqueror, I am the Blood of the Conquered, Requerimiento: The Spanish Requirement of 1513, Precolumbian Native Peoples and Technology, The Atlantic Slave Trade what too few textbooks told you, Social Studies & Multicultural Education, University of Washington-Bothell. Meredith McCoy: In the second part of the interview, we’re going to move forward in terms of time. So the kind of traffic that we think about in the Atlantic is really complicated by our including Native peoples in that story. Native people are beginning to become the minorities in their own homelands and they have a number of different grievances against these colonial powers of which, forced labor or slavery is one. Could you tell us a little bit about why it’s important for our listeners to hear what she has to say? Hernando de Soto and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, they go on similar kinds of expeditions in the late 1530s, early 1540s, and they kidnap hundreds of Indigenous people, mostly women. Meredith McCoy: So much of what we’re asked to teach as teachers is divided into historical periods. Hasan K. Jeffries: That seems to hint at and speak to the ways in which Indigenous people resisted the encroachment of colonizers and resisted the enslavement of their own. They are trying to preserve and as a result of that, it becomes sort of a new starting point in the difficult choices that they are making in what to do and what not to do vis-à-vis engaging with Europeans and also engaging with other nations. Some of them are even sold to places like the Philippines, part of the Spanish empire at that time, or sold to the Caribbean in exchange for African captives. So you can see both the economic pull of this, but also that desire for security, in a really violent and changing world. What we have to understand about this and what makes it so important in Indigenous societies is that kinship was really the organizing principle of creating Native societies. Warfare is spreading into the interior, sometimes hundreds of miles away from European settlement because demand for enslaved laborers is just insatiable. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: The Indians’ Discovery of Columbus Interactives. I think many of us were trained as history teachers to teach the colonial era, and then the idea of colonization sort of disappears. We’re going to continue to talk about the relationship between the Indigenous slave trade and the African slave trade. Hasan K. Jeffries: Most students leave high school without an adequate understanding of the role slavery played in the development of what would become the United States or how its legacies still influence us today. They want ways to protect their communities. They’re becoming embroiled in imperial conflicts, in global trade. One of the things that really stood out to me about that conversation with Doctor Snyder is this idea of mutual displacement.
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